I am trying to install Mathematica 10 on Ubuntu 14.04, I have acquired the program in the downloads folder but I am unable to extract the file upon right clicking and hitting "extract here". I did read around about some of the ways others have gotten Mathematica to run, however being a complete newbie, I did not understand what specific things meant (Mounting to a CD, as well as what commands meant) and many of the steps I had to take to install it. How can I get Mathematica 10 and all its functions to install from start to finish? Also being new, I would like to learn as much as I can to become really effective in Ubuntu, if anyone knows of any resources to get me up to speed could you list them? I would greatly appreciate it! I am starting off with the book Ubuntu an absolute beginners guide. Hopefully I can become effective and independent so I don't have to continue to ask bad questions. Thank you so much!
This article provides a pretty good starting point.
Installing Mathmatica on Unix and Linux
For us to be able to help you further you need to provide more exact information on where you're stuck. It sounds like you downloaded the program. Do you know the format of the download? (For example, does it end in .tar or .gz?) Unlike Microsoft Windows, clicking on stuff in Ubuntu will often lead to more harm than good.
Are you able to open a terminal window to get to a command line? Can you get to the directory where the file is downloaded? (Probably /home/[username]/Downloads)
Post more info and we'll get you through it.
Sorry this came extremely late, but ultimately I was able to use the command terminal to acquire mathematica on my computer as Rick Chatham suggested. I acquired a book "The Linux Command Line: A Complete Introduction" by William E. Shotts and by gaining an understanding of the command line and how to use it I was able to install it by changing directories to my downloads and then utilizing sudo apt-get install .