Where can I find a list of all the packages that get installed by default with Ubuntu 14.04?
Do you want explanation for all 1744 default packages or something in particular? You can find the full list here for Ubuntu 14.04.6 LTS.
Ubuntu comes with many preinstalled applications. See the link I provided. Those applications are recommended by ubunt. This is a cutting of that site:
- Accessories – Various useful utilities.
- Games – Information on games written for Ubuntu Linux, as well as how to run Windows games in Ubuntu.
- Graphics – Software for creating and manipulating images.
- Photo – Software for viewing and editing photos.
- Internet – Network applications like web browsers, email clients, and instant messengers.
- Other – Software for business, science, medicine, engineering, and other professional disciplines.
- Office – Software such as word processors, spreadsheet, presentation, and database applications.
- Productivity – Software such as organizers, schedulers, planners and management applications.
- Servers and Web Applications – Software for creating websites, teleconferencing servers, learning management systems, and other web applications.
- Sound and Video – Software for playing, ripping, and burning music and videos.
- Multimedia – Software for playing and editing sound and video.
- System Tools – Software for configuring and managing Ubuntu.