Are there any Event Viewer and Device Manager equivalent applications for Ubuntu (like Windows) so that I can track every task occurring in it?
If you aren't looking for a GUI, the equivalent of Device Manager would be the three ls commands:
lshw lspci lsusb
lshw is a superset of
lsusb, so you can use the Hardware Lister (lshw-gtk) GUI.
To view the logs, there is a GUI application called
System Log usually installed in Ubuntu by default.
If you want a GUI, system monitor is your friend.
Search for it in the dash. It has all the processes, CPU, Memory and Network usage, and Disk space.