I get the root privilege when I type sudo.

But when su asks for the Password, which I type in, the terminal says

su: Authentication Failure

Open Terminal By CTRL+ALT+T and Type :-

sudo passwd

And Re-Enter your password. This command will have you change your current password.

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You could just use sudo su

$ sudo su

or sudo -i / sudo -s

$ sudo -i 
$ sudo -s 

Both work fine and will do everything .

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Try to change the password of the sudo and login

$ sudo passwd    
[sudo] password for dhamu:
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully

After changing the sudo passwd you will be able to switch user via su

$ su
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You can just use

sudo -i

Then just enter your password to get root privilege.

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