how to update tor browser from Terminal ?
The general solution is to get the latest version of the Tor Browser Bundle (TBB) from the download site and extract it to a new directory. You can start TBB from this directory and use the new version. There is no other update mechanism.
Sometimes it also works to extract the new archive over the old directory, but it is not guaranteed that this will work.
If you extract the archive into a new directory you'll loose bookmarks and other information. So you might want to export your bookmarks from the old TBB and import it to the new one. Furthermore you should copy the file
Data/Tor/state. It contains information about your Tor guard nodes. There was Q&A at Tor.SE why this should be done. The question How do I keep my Tor Browser Bundle current? provides also some insights.
A nice way to use always the latest version is the torbrowser-launcher. When you start the software it checks for new versions of TBB and updates it in a secure way. IF there is no update, it justs starts the currently installed TBB.
You should be able to update using:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade