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please help me with this about the differences of the text console and terminal. how is they different and what are their differences. I like to use ubuntu by terminal but i know barely all its commands so how can I get them all

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In unix terminology, the short answer is that

  • terminal = tty = text input/output environment
  • console = physical terminal

Console, terminal and tty are closely related. Originally, they meant a piece of equipment through which you could interact with a computer: in the early days of unix, that meant a teleprinter-style device resembling a typewriter, sometimes called a teletypewriter, or “tty” in shorthand. The name “terminal” came from the electronic point of view, and the name “console” from the furniture point of view. Very early in unix history, electronic keyboards and displays became the norm for terminals.

In unix terminology, a tty is a particular kind of device file which implements a number of additional commands (ioctls) beyond read and write. In its most common meaning, terminal is synonymous with tty. Some ttys are provided by the kernel on behalf of a hardware device, for example with the input coming from the keyboard and the output going to a text mode screen, or with the input and output transmitted over a serial line. Other ttys, sometimes called pseudo-ttys, are provided (through a thin kernel layer) by programs called terminal emulators, such as Xterm (running in the X Window System), Screen (which provides a layer of isolation between a program and another terminal), Ssh (which connects a terminal on one machine with programs on another machine), Expect (for scripting terminal interactions), etc.

The word terminal can also have a more traditional meaning of a device through which one interacts with a computer, typically with a keyboard and display. For example an X terminal is a kind of thin client, a special-purpose computer whose only purpose is to drive a keyboard, display, mouse and occasionally other human interaction peripherals, with the actual applications running on another, more powerful computer.

A console is generally a terminal in the physical sense that is by some definition the primary terminal directly connected to a machine. The console appears to the operating system as a (kernel-implemented) tty. On some systems, such as Linux and FreeBSD, the console appears as several ttys (special key combinations switch between these ttys); just to confuse matters, the name given to each particular tty can be “console”, ”virtual console”, ”virtual terminal”, and other variations.

See also Why is a Virtual Terminal “virtual”, and what/why/where is the “real” Terminal?.

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A terminal or a console is a piece of hardware, using which a user can interact with a host. Basically a keyboard coupled with a text screen.
Nowadays nearly all terminals and consoles represent "virtual" ones.

The file that represents a terminal is, traditionally, called a tty file. If you look under the "/dev" directory of a UNIX system, you'll find a lot of tty files connected to virtual consoles (e.g. tty1 on linux), virtual terminals (e.g. pts/0) or physically connected hardware (e.g. ttyS0 is the physical serial terminal, if any, attached on first serial port of the host).

A console must be a piece of hardware physically connected to (or part of) the host. It has a special role in the system: it is the main point to access a system for maintenance and some special operation can be done only from a console (e.g. see single user mode). A terminal can be, and usually is, a remote piece of hardware.

A terminal emulator is a program that emulates a physical terminal (e.g. xterm, gnome-terminal, minicom).

So when you look to a "text window" on your linux system (under X11) you are looking to: a terminal emulator, connected to a virtual terminal, identified by a tty file, inside which runs a shell.

Thanks to Gilles and Ankoz for their answers on this thread.

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