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I saw this command on a forum as a question for registering:

"date -u +%V$(uname)|sha256sum|sed 's/\W//g'"

I think it depends on the time of my PC which changes every second, but the output is still the same every time I try it. So, can someone please explain how this command works?

  • Note that while this uses the date command the output does not in fact change every second but every week specifically at 00:00 UTC on the Monday of each week. This is because of the specified format string in which the only date component actually being output is the ISO week number (%V). This is why trying the command repeatedly is giving the same output you would have to wait until the next week to see it change. – MttJocy Oct 31 '16 at 21:14
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Let's break this into its constituent parts:

The date part

  • date -u : as explained in man date, the -u flag makes it print the Coordinated Universal Time

  • +%V : the data command takes a format argument which is given after a +. For example:

    $ date +%m/%d/%y
    05/04/14
    

    See man date for a list of all the formats it can produce. The %V means:

    %V ISO week number, with Monday as first day of week (01..53)

    So, this week it will return:

    $ date +%V
    18
    

    And next week it will return 19.

  • $(uname) : this will simply print the result of the uname command which should be Linux on a Linux system.

So, putting all that together, the date command will print WeekNumberLinux:

$ date -u +%V$(uname)
18Linux

The sha256sum part

sha256sum simply takes an input string and applies a hashing function to it. This produces a long string that is unique to the input given:

$ date -u +%V$(uname) | sha256sum 
9a93b71d5b2841e649195bc81f8e38600860a040bc368cdbd0cde346b73248a1  -

The sed part

The sed commmand uses the susbtitution operator (s/pattern/replacment/) which will substitute pattern with replacement. In this case, the pattern is \W which means "All non-word characters", meaning anything that's not [A-Za-z0-9_], not a letter, not a number and not an underscore. This is used to remove the trailing space and - from the output of sha256sum.


So, the command is a simple way of making sure you are not a robot. Since the date is printing the current week, your output will always be the same until next week when it will change.

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date -u +%V$(uname)|sha256sum|sed 's/\W//g'

Removes all the non word characters from the sha256sum of date -u +%V$(uname) command's output.

avinash@avinash-Lenovo-IdeaPad-Z500:~$ date -u +%V$(uname)
18Linux
avinash@avinash-Lenovo-IdeaPad-Z500:~$ date -u +%V$(uname)|sha256sum
9a93b71d5b2841e649195bc81f8e38600860a040bc368cdbd0cde346b73248a1  -
avinash@avinash-Lenovo-IdeaPad-Z500:~$ date -u +%V$(uname)|sha256sum|sed 's/\W//g'
9a93b71d5b2841e649195bc81f8e38600860a040bc368cdbd0cde346b73248a1
avinash@avinash-Lenovo-IdeaPad-Z500:~$ 

From man date

%V -  ISO week number, with Monday as first day of week (01..53)
-u, --utc, --universal    print or set Coordinated Universal Time
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  • i know that but why the output is the same – Fat Mind May 4 '14 at 12:41
  • what is the job of +%V – Fat Mind May 4 '14 at 12:41
  • ok many thanks , but what are the meaning of that part after sed – Fat Mind May 4 '14 at 12:54
  • you mean i have to explain the sed part. – Avinash Raj May 4 '14 at 12:55
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    s/\W//g- searches for the non word characters, if it found any then it replaces the non word characters with null(empty but not a space) and this will apply to all the lines because the global flag g is set. – Avinash Raj May 4 '14 at 12:58

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