Starting from a live usb stick, according to: create a usb stick on mac osx is not possible. I downloaded ubuntu-14.04-desktop-amd64+mac.iso
The same behaviour appears with rEFIt installed.
Can anybody help me? I'd love to get ubuntu running.
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Short answer: the guide for 13.04 also applies for 14.04
Longer answer: Apple does not let you boot any non Mac operating system from USB on the 2010 version of the Air. The easiest (and safest) way is booting from a SuperDrive. I tried booting the Ubuntu installation disk from an additional partition on my harddisk similar to this description, but probably corrupted my boot partition in the progress. This turned out to be worse than expected, because it's not easy to boot a 2010 MacBook Air from any other medium than the harddisk in a scenario like this. That said, I'm sure I made a mistake and it should be possible to install Ubuntu that way. If you try, just be sure to know what you're doing. If you have access to an Apple SuperDrive, make your life a lot easier by using this option!
I finally installed Ubuntu without any problems from a DVD via a SuperDrive (I did not use the "try"-option, just installed it to a separate partition created in Mac OS Disk Manager before).
@user275168: Check the Ubuntu installation guide for 13.04 for information on how to fix the graphics driver on the MacBook Air 2010. You need to get the proprietary version of the driver from Nvidia. I installed it and everything works like a charm ever since.