Pulseaudio comes with a command line interface (
man pulse-cli-syntax) to control many settings.
We can either load the command line parser
pacmd or we call commands directly in a terminal or script:
pacmd set-sink-volume <index> <volume>
pacmd set-source-volume <index> <volume>
controls the volume of a given sink where
<index> is the sink index (listed with
pacmd list-sinks) and
<volume> is any value from 0 (= Mute) to 65536 = 100%.
The configurations files in
~/.pulse which may still be active in an upgraded installation) are not meant to be read or edited in a default setting. We can however create a custom
default.pa there to override settings in
For 12.04 earcandy may be used for audio control. Sadly this application is not further developed and not available in later releases.
See also notes for this answer.