To use apt-get through a proxy, I do the following - you do need to be able to access the internet (e.g. through a browser like Firefox) though:
sudo apt-get --print-uris install PROGRAM
This prints the urls (and other info like md5sums) of the packages needed to carry out the installation, so you can download them. For example, using
wilf@comp:~$ sudo apt-get install --print-uris supertux
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
The following NEW packages will be installed
0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 59.4 MB of archives.
After this operation, 80.0 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
'http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/s/supertux/supertux-data_0.3.3-6_all.deb' supertux-data_0.3.3-6_all.deb 58590640 MD5Sum:68bd36f2c262f7caed1b5c947977202a
'http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/s/supertux/supertux_0.3.3-6_i386.deb' supertux_0.3.3-6_i386.deb 804782 MD5Sum:a49c6c3c918bae2c968b3da6ac725b06
Then download the
.deb files from the given links (preferably into a empty folder), through a browser that works through the proxy etc, and you can then install them using Software Centre; or using
cd /FOLDER/WITH/DOWNLOADED-DEB-FILES and one of these commands in terminal
dpkg -i *.deb
This is a bit slow and annoying, but seems to work over HTTP proxies. You can also get the packages from http://packages.ubuntu.com/