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How to insert Arabic character for superscript Alef (like in هٰ) and subscript Alef (like in هٖ) from keyboard directly? Are they commonly used in Arabic or only used in Mushaf Uthmani of The Holy Quran?

Actually the subscript Alef is not rendered below ه in my computer (Ubuntu Raring), but on the left side of the letter instead. However the superscipt alef is rendered above the letter. I doubt I copied a wrong character :) Update: I've checked that it was a not a wrong character, because another machine renders the subscript Alef right below the character, so it was rendering problem in Raring.

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  • Use Character Map find their Unicode code. like U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF

  • Then use Ctrl+Shift+u (a small under-lined u shows up), type Unicode code 656

See for other input-method options Cannot type “ć” on Hungarian layout

For faster input, you may modify your current keyboard layout or create a customized one. See these answers:

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  • If only there's a faster way rather than 7-keyboard-stroke :D – fikr4n Aug 21 '14 at 1:47
  • @BornToCode, yep there is. updated my answer. – user.dz Aug 21 '14 at 8:25
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Shift + W = هً

Shift + S = هٍ

Shift + R = هٌ

Shift + ` = هّ

Shift + ` then Shift + E = هُّ

Shift + X = هْ

Shift + Z = ~

Shift + ` then Shift + A = هِّ

Shift + E = هُ

Shift + Q = هَ

Shift + A = هِ

Shift + ` then Shift + Q = هَّ

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  • You better delete this answer before someone vote it down. Please read the question carefully. – fikr4n Mar 30 '16 at 22:40
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As far as I know:

Shift + Q = هَ

Shift + A = هِ

Shift + W = هً

Shift + S = هٍ

Shift + E = هُ

Shift + ` = هّ

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Here is another option I currently use. Instead of using that default keyboard layout which does not include superscript and subscript Alef, just use another keyboard layout.

Create a custom layout or get it from this custom Arabic keyboard layout. Place the layout file in /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/ directory and register it by modifying /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev.xml file, add it in <layoutList> node like this (taken from the link above):

<layoutList>
  ...
  <layout>
    <configItem>
      <name>SIMPLE FILE NAME, NOT FULL PATH</name>
      <shortDescription>USUALLY TWO-LETTER COUNTRY CODE</shortDescription>
      <description>USUALLY FULL COUNTRY NAME</description>
      <languageList>
        <iso639Id>THREE-LETTER LANGUAGE CODE</iso639Id>
      </languageList>
    </configItem>
    <variantList></variantList>
  </layout>
...
</layoutList>

Now just press ` (backtick/tilde key) for U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF and Shift+R for U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF. There is also U+0657 ARABIC INVERTED DAMMA by pressing Shift+4.

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