1
$ dpkg -l '*pango*'
Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold
| Status=Not/Inst/Conf-files/Unpacked/halF-conf/Half-inst/trig-aWait/Trig-pend
|/ Err?=(none)/Reinst-required (Status,Err: uppercase=bad)
||/ Name                      Version           Architecture      Description
+++-=========================-=================-=================-========================================================
ii  gir1.2-pango-1.0          1.32.5-5ubuntu1   amd64             Layout and rendering of internationalized text - gir bin
ii  libcogl-pango12:amd64     1.14.0-2          amd64             Object oriented GL/GLES Abstraction/Utility Layer
ii  libpango-1.0-0:amd64      1.32.5-5ubuntu1   amd64             Layout and rendering of internationalized text
ii  libpango1.0-0:amd64       1.32.5-5ubuntu1   amd64             Layout and rendering of internationalized text
ii  libpangocairo-1.0-0:amd64 1.32.5-5ubuntu1   amd64             Layout and rendering of internationalized text
ii  libpangoft2-1.0-0:amd64   1.32.5-5ubuntu1   amd64             Layout and rendering of internationalized text
ii  libpangomm-1.4-1:amd64    2.34.0-1          amd64             C++ Wrapper for pango (shared libraries)
ii  libpangox-1.0-0:amd64     0.0.2-4           amd64             pango library X backend
ii  libpangoxft-1.0-0:amd64   1.32.5-5ubuntu1   amd64             Layout and rendering of internationalized text

Why two libpango exist here?

One is libpango-1.0-0:amd64, another one is libpango1.0-0:amd64?

1

libpango1.0-0 is just a transitional package. Transitional packages are just there to allow that upgrades goes without a hitch if some packages still depends on such packages so they doesn't end with unmet dependencies. These packages normally are created when the original is renamed somewhere. If no package depends of this package it can be removed without problems.

apt-cache show libpango-1.0-0 libpango1.0-0
Package: libpango-1.0-0
Description-en: Layout and rendering of internationalized text
 Pango is a library for layout and rendering of text, with an emphasis
 on internationalization. Pango can be used anywhere that text layout is
 needed. however, most of the work on Pango-1.0 was done using the GTK+
 widget toolkit as a test platform. Pango forms the core of text and
 font handling for GTK+-2.0.
 .
 Pango is designed to be modular; the core Pango layout can be used with
 four different font backends:
  - Core X windowing system fonts
  - Client-side fonts on X using the Xft library
  - Direct rendering of scalable fonts using the FreeType library
  - Native fonts on Microsoft backends
 .
 This package contains the shared libraries.

Package: libpango1.0-0
Description-en: Layout and rendering of internationalized text
 Pango is a library for layout and rendering of text, with an emphasis
 on internationalization. Pango can be used anywhere that text layout is
 needed. however, most of the work on Pango-1.0 was done using the GTK+
 widget toolkit as a test platform. Pango forms the core of text and
 font handling for GTK+-2.0.
 .
 Pango is designed to be modular; the core Pango layout can be used with
 four different font backends:
  - Core X windowing system fonts
  - Client-side fonts on X using the Xft library
  - Direct rendering of scalable fonts using the FreeType library
  - Native fonts on Microsoft backends
 .
 This is a transitional package.
| improve this answer | |
0

they're actually two different packages (though quite confusing)

actually, libpango1.0-0 depends on libpango-1.0-0

a quick dpkg -L shows

libpango1.0-0:
/usr/share/doc/libpango1.0-0/AUTHORS
/usr/share/doc/libpango1.0-0/NEWS.gz
/usr/share/doc/libpango1.0-0/README
/usr/share/doc/libpango1.0-0/THANKS
/usr/share/doc/libpango1.0-0/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/libpango1.0-0/copyright
libpango-1.0-0:
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpango-1.0.so.0
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpango-1.0.so.0.3200.5
/usr/share/doc/libpango-1.0-0/AUTHORS
/usr/share/doc/libpango-1.0-0/NEWS.gz
/usr/share/doc/libpango-1.0-0/README
/usr/share/doc/libpango-1.0-0/THANKS
/usr/share/doc/libpango-1.0-0/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/libpango-1.0-0/copyright
| improve this answer | |

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