I don't know much of Ubuntu, but is Ubuntu able to decode these sort of things? Or do I need to install some program? If I don't, how do I use Ubuntu to read the file?
In short - you can't!
/etc/shadow stores a hashed version of the password. This is, for all intents and purposes, impossible to recover because hashing is a one way operation.
This stops malicious people being able to read the passwords of users on the system.
Let's make it simple : No. Passwords are not meant to be decrypted, what would be the point ? No technique, no utility will allow you to do such a thing. Behind those passwords are huge algorithms meant to be one-way only.
However, you can read the file (and see encrypted passwords) by doing :
sudo cat /etc/shadow
You'll need to be a sudoer, or root himself (in which case,
sudo is useless)
here's the deal. You can't decrypt a hashed password, that would ruin the point of hashing.
Hashing works in basic terms, that you take a random string and mix that up (using a certain algorithm) with the password so that it becomes totally unreadable. Then you store this password + hash in a database.
Then how do you know what the correct password is? Well you enter the password and take that same hash string and then you will get the same hash. Then simply compare those hashes and you know if the password is correct.
You can find out what password the user used, but then you need to know what hash string was used to hash it and also you need to know what hashing algorithm was used. Then in the end the solution is still to brute-force the password(try every combination) then hash it and see if it matches the hash that's stored in the database. So for a conclusion, you can "decrypt" a hashed password, but it's not easy.
useful links on the topic:
Ubuntu can't decrypt passwords but you may find