Is there a possibility to enter the terminal mode accessible with Ctrl+Alt+F1 with a bash command so that I can tell a script to do so?
Since you intend to use a command in a script, you probably want to use something that doesn't need root privileges to be ran as 'chvt' or 'openvt' .
That's why you may prefer
xdotool . After you have installed, you can use the following command to simulate this shortcut input Ctrl+Alt+F1:
xdotool key Ctrl+Alt+F1
Command for changing virtual terminals is named
chvt. In gnome-terminal:
$ sudo chvt 1
Here is an exmplanation why do you need
In a virtual terminals 1-6 root privileges aren't needed.
To run a command on another virtual terminal you can use
$ sudo openvt -s pwd
More examples and explanation here: http://www.ae.iitm.ac.in/pipermail/ilugc/2008-December/045004.html