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I am in need of some help. I am completely new to linux. I have created and installed a Unbuntu 10.04 server as a virtual machine that is running in a Citrix Xenserver 5.6 Fp1 environment.

While I have struggled a bit here and there, everything seems to work ok. I have a proxy server running on this machine for my users, and I have recently added kerio mail server. This is where I found an issue. (I think). While browsing the machines running processes using "top" it appeared to me that the entire amount of my memory was being maxed out, while my swap drive is never touched. I do recall during the setup of this machine that I did have a little trouble setting up the drives. By that I mean, I wasn't feeling all warm and fuzzy that I did it right. Well, I think now, I can definitely say that I think I have it wrong. It appears that my drives are a bit jacked up to say the least. Here is the order of the "jackedupness"... and below that is what I get when I run "fdisk -l"

Any help would be gratefully accepted.

  1. Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
  2. Partition table entries are not in disk order
  3. Disk /dev/xvdd doesn't contain a valid partition table


$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/xvda: 193.3 GB, 193273528320 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 23497 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000aa4f5

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvda1               1          32      248832   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/xvda2           23255       23498     1951744   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/xvda3              32       23255   186540033    5  Extended
/dev/xvda5              32       23255   186540032   8e  Linux LVM

Partition table entries are not in disk order

Disk /dev/xvdd: 66 MB, 66891776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 8 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/xvdd doesn't contain a valid partition table

Thank you in advance,

Casey

sudo parted -l

Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm)
Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu-tmp: 998MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop

Number  Start  End    Size   File system  Flags
 1      0.00B  998MB  998MB  ext3

Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm)
Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu-home: 5000MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop

Number  Start  End     Size    File system  Flags
 1      0.00B  5000MB  5000MB  ext3

Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm)
Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu-var: 160GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop

Number  Start  End    Size   File system  Flags
 1      0.00B  160GB  160GB  ext3

Model: Linux device-mapper (linear) (dm)
Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu-root: 20.0GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop

Number  Start  End     Size    File system  Flags
 1      0.00B  20.0GB  20.0GB  ext3

Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvda: 193GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End    Size    Type      File system     Flags
 1      1049kB  256MB  255MB   primary   ext3
 3      257MB   191GB  191GB   extended
 5      257MB   191GB  191GB   logical                   lvm
 2      191GB   193GB  1999MB  primary   linux-swap(v1)

Error: /dev/xvdd: unrecognised disk label                                 

Results of the swapon -s

swapon -s
Filename                Type        Size    Used    Priority
/dev/xvda2                              partition   1951736 0   -1

fstab contents

# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
proc            /proc           proc    nodev,noexec,nosuid 0       0
/dev/mapper/ubuntu-root /               ext3    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# /boot was on /dev/xvda1 during installation
UUID=762d244c-df00-401e-a06b-b4d98316b5b3 /boot           ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/mapper/ubuntu-home /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/mapper/ubuntu-tmp /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/mapper/ubuntu-var /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
# swap was on /dev/xvda2 during installation
UUID=87884241-3fa5-46c9-aef2-8144c08ac49c none            swap    sw              0       0
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    Don't rely on fdisk - it doesn't currently handle LVM volumes (or GPT partition tables) - try sudo parted -l instead. If you are concerned about swap you may want to include the output of swapon -s as well. – steeldriver Oct 19 '13 at 23:06
  • Can you add them to your post (using the 'Edit' feature) please? it's hard to read as comments – steeldriver Oct 19 '13 at 23:32
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    Ignore the warning about the order, it is nonsense. As for why xvdd has no partition table, what makes you think it is supposed to have one? You haven't described your disk layout so for all we know, that's how you set it up. – psusi Oct 20 '13 at 0:26
  • Thank you so very much for the reply @psusi All I am trying to do is try to figure out why my swap drive is not working at all. Disk layout? ya, no clue what I need to provide you with to answer that. Partition table? ya, no clue if its supposed to have one or not. Like I said in my post, I am totally new to this and I am looking for help, which.... is why I'm here. When doing the initial install of of this, I tried as best as I could to set the drives up from what I read on the internet. Please explain to me what I need to do in order to provide you with the information you need. – Casey Oct 20 '13 at 1:13
  • @psusi I added the contents of the fstab file to the bottom of my original question. I'm not sure if that helps or not. Thanks – Casey Oct 20 '13 at 1:27
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First, your problem has nothing to do with partitions. The fdisk warnings about entries not being in disk order and about partition 1 not starting on a cylinder boundary can be ignored. (In fact, the second of these identifies your version of fdisk as being pretty ancient. I recommend you upgrade.)

Second, Linux uses memory that's not otherwise being used for buffers and caches to improve performance. On such a system, it's not uncommon for nearly all available memory to be in use, with little or no use of swap space. For instance, here's the output of free on one of my computers:

$ free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          7469       7380         89          0        124       3847
-/+ buffers/cache:       3407       4062
Swap:         6143        717       5426

You might think that memory was being nearly maxed out (7469MiB in use and only 89MiB free), with little use of swap space. You need to pay attention to the -/+ buffers/cache line, though; that line tells you how much memory is being used by programs. In this case, it's less than half the available memory. Most of this computer's memory is being used by disk caches, and those caches will be cleared the moment they're needed by a program.

The top utility doesn't provide the equivalent of the -/+ buffers/cache line of free, so chances are you're concerned over nothing. Please check your memory with free to see how much of your memory is being consumed by buffers and caches. If you still think there's a problem after you do that, please edit your original question with details.

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