According to How can I make fonts look like they do in Windows? I have got the resolution 96x96 dots per inch, but I do not see any possibility to set it in the System Settings; searching for 'font' finds only the 'Univesal Access' with no possibility of setting the resolution or loading any further fonts, maybe the True Type ones. According to How do I change the font DPI settings? answer I have installed the gnome-tweak-tool 3.3.4-0ubuntu. It also does not appear to enable setting the resolution nor loading more fonts.
I'm learning about fonts too, so I'll tell you as much as I know about this.
If you're trying to apply a new font to, for example, LibreOffice, you can try to copy the font you've downloaded into the directory /usr/share/fonts or /usr/share/fonts/truetype. These are usually tarball files and are best extracted with
tar -zxvf filename.tar.gz, but it doesn't have to end in .gz for it to be a tarball file.
To get Microsoft fonts on Linux, you can try
sudo apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer in the terminal.
Alternatively, if you have dual-booted your computer with a Windows partition (in which you share a common C:\ drive with Linux and Windows), you can go to the Fonts folder (C:\Windows\Fonts). From here you can install the fonts by right clicking, hitting Preview or Open in Font Viewer (which may open many new windows due to it being font families), and clicking on Install.