I have just found a faster (quick and dirty) way (Attention: it is not secure!):
1) Install the terminal app and open it
2) switch to root
(enter you screen lock password)
2) Enter the following commands:
echo "PasswordAuthentication yes" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config
echo "AllowUsers phablet" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Now your ssh server is running and it will accept your screen lock code as a password! Attention: it is very easy to brute-force now! Please change your settings immediately (now you can do it in a comfortable way, after you connect via ssh from you PC).
Since you run the sshd manually, the /etc/init/ssh.override file is not applied anymore...
So to connect from your PC:
where x.x.x.x is an IP-address of your phone, which you can find by typing
in the terminal of your phone.
UPDATE: it could be, that after update, sshd is failing to start because it cannot open host keys, then just regenerate them:
If it fails because /var/run/sshd is missing, just create it:
chmod 755 /var/run/sshd