Why is one preferred over the other in this example?

sudo su
echo "options iwlwifi 11n_disable=1" >> /etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.conf

Please provide links to Ubuntu documentation.

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    Please reconsider your choice of "accepted" answers. The lowest-voted one is actually the only correct one. Feb 25, 2015 at 16:55

3 Answers 3


The sudo su command stands for "switch user", and allows you to become another user. It allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified in the sudoers file.

The ‑i (simulate initial login) option runs the shell specified by the password database entry of the target user as a login shell. This means that login-specific resource files such as .profile or .login will be read by the shell. If a command is specified, it is passed to the shell for execution via the shell's ‑c option. If no command is specified, an interactive shell is executed.


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    "Using su creates security issue, and is essentially dangerous." What?
    – OrangeDog
    Aug 12, 2013 at 8:41
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    If you run sudo su you are asked for your password, not the root password. The root user doesn't even need to have a password. Regardless, if an admin is using the root password, that doesn't imply that all the regular users know it.
    – OrangeDog
    Aug 12, 2013 at 9:51
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    No, it will not. sudo runs su as root, and root can su to any user without knowing their password. Fundamental misunderstandings about how the system works deserve a downvote IMO.
    – OrangeDog
    Aug 12, 2013 at 10:26
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    And deleting your comments just adds to the confusion.
    – OrangeDog
    Aug 12, 2013 at 10:29
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    You're not making it much better. sudo -i won't ask for root's password either, so it's not relevant to the question.
    – OrangeDog
    Aug 12, 2013 at 10:32

sudo su only changes the current user to root. Environment settings (like PATH) remain the same.

sudo -i creates a fresh environment as if root had just logged in.

The difference is more noticeable if you use other users. After sudo su bob you will be bob, but in the same place. After sudo -i -u bob you will be bob, in bob's home directory, with bob's default shell and with bob's .profile and any other login scripts having been run.

See man sudo for more details of what -i does. Unfortunately, man su is light on details.

Found a version of man su (from login-1: that has the following to say:

$PATH reset according to the /etc/login.defs options ENV_PATH or ENV_SUPATH (see below);

$IFS reset to “<space><tab><newline>”, if it was set.

Note that the default behavior for the environment is the following:

The $HOME, $SHELL, $USER, $LOGNAME, $PATH, and $IFS environment variables are reset.

If --login is not used, the environment is copied, except for the variables above.

If --login is used, the $TERM, $COLORTERM, $DISPLAY, and $XAUTHORITY environment variables are copied if they were set.

Other environments might be set by PAM modules.

So whether and to what extent sudo su changes the environment depends on your distribution and setup. Thus sudo -i is theoretically more portable.

  • su does change environment settings, and can be used to simulate a login using - or -l. Even without -l, $PATH is changed. Test these claims before making them! (Did you mean that PWD remains the same?) Feb 25, 2015 at 16:51
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    The real question is, is there a difference between sudo su - and sudo -i? Feb 25, 2015 at 16:52
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    You're clearly putting some thought into this and actually doing some testing in the shell, so I apologize for my snippy "test these claims" comment. That said, on my system I do observe that $PATH is changed when I use su without sudo (using the root password). According to info su (which might be a better thing to link to in your answer), su does indeed read the password entry for the user you're becoming. Possibly the $PATH change I'm observing is system-dependent (I'm on Debian 7). Feb 25, 2015 at 17:17
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    Hmmm. My man su (which is longer than the one you linked to) says that it's part of shadow-utils My man page also says that $PATH is set even if --preserve-environment is used. So I guess it really is just a difference between different versions of su. Feb 25, 2015 at 17:34
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    The behaviour is also affected by your PAM configuration. /etc/pam.d/sudo and /etc/pam.d/su may be set up to do completely different or exactly the same things.
    – OrangeDog
    Jun 21, 2019 at 9:23

The main problem is one of (not so) sane environment settings.

Using sudo su the new shell gets its environment from the user who issues the command - which may be problematic.

With sudo -i you get a clean root shell.

See Special notes on sudo and shells

Remains to observe that it is rarely necessary at all to create a root shell.

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    The "special notes" you link to say that sudo -i is similar to sudo su -, which actually does not get its environment from the user issuing the command. Feb 25, 2015 at 16:54
  • @KyleStrand thx for pointing this out - it was a typo, the question really is about sudo su vs. sudo -i.
    – guntbert
    Feb 25, 2015 at 20:32
  • Why the sudo su would be problematic about the environment? Please can you expand the idea? Apr 4, 2020 at 3:36
  • @ManuelJordan please see the "summary" on the page I linked to.
    – guntbert
    Apr 4, 2020 at 8:02
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    @ManuelJordan there is a table named "Summary of the differences found" .
    – guntbert
    Apr 4, 2020 at 21:38

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