Does anyone know if we can develop apps for ubuntu for phones in Python ?
PyQT / PySide would seem to support also QML. But can we use them on the phones ?
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Then there's the point of politics: Canonical said they will release the source code for Ubuntu Phone in due time, so it's very likely that someone hacks support for Python in it after that. If Canonical itself will support that is not clear yet, as far as I'm aware they didn't make a statement on that yet. Nor is it clear for any OEMs/operators (because there aren't any (known) yet).
UPDATE: Canonical released the source (as expected), and some operators are known now. It seems like Canonical's not planning to add Python support for the SDK themselves (at least for now), but that they're open to contributions. (Source.)
The problem is, that you also need the Python Qt bindings - PySide. Unfortunately the project is not in a good shape and there is almost no work on Qt5 support AFAIK. So it is not really clear if it will be possible to use Python to develop mobile apps. Currently the SDK seems to only support C++.
I may not have the answer, but since they said you will be able to program your application with desktop languages like C/C++, and they have partners like Unity 3D and else, I think it means Ubuntu for phones is compatible with any languages already compatible with Ubuntu desktop. It must be a matter of installing the python libraries...
Yes, You can use multiple programming languages, but Python is the recommended one http://developer.ubuntu.com/resources/programming-languages/python/
update: it used to be the recommended language https://web.archive.org/web/20130524092542/http://developer.ubuntu.com/resources/programming-languages/python
... when writing something new we recommend using Python.