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How can I produce a list of all open windows, including dialog boxes and duplicates, from the command line?

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You can use wmctrl to get a list of all open windows.

wmctrl -l

0x0080006a -1 localhost panel
0x0180007c  0 localhost Mozilla Firefox
0x02600007  3 localhost user@localhost: /home/user - Shell - Konsole
0x00600011  1 localhost KTorrent
0x02200007  0 localhost user@localhost: /home/user - Shell - Konsole
1           2 3         4

The columns:

  1. The window ID. This is used for the [#i -i] switch.
  2. The desktop ID. It begins counting at 0. -1 means that window is on all desktops. Used with [#d -d] and more.
  3. The client machine
  4. The name (long title) of the window. Used with [#r -r] mostly, and can be renamed with [#N -N] and [#T -T].

More examples: wmctrl-examples

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