How can I add new programs to the launcher (or the dock in Ubuntu 17.10 and later) in Ubuntu?
The other portion if I understand you correctly should be pretty simple. Just launch the application you want to attach to the "start menu" or rather dock panel, side bar, but officially it is called the "Launcher" and right click the icon and select "Add to Favorites", or if you are running an older version of Ubuntu with Unity 7 select "Lock to Launcher".
Depending on your version of Ubuntu select the method below.
On Ubuntu 17.10 and later (with GNOME 3) select "Add to Favorites":
Alternatively, on Ubuntu 17.10 and later, click the "Show Applications" icon, browse to the icon of the program you want to add, right click the program icon and you will see the option "Add To Favorites". Selecting that option places the icon in the dock.
Before Ubuntu 17.10 (with Unity) select "Lock to Launcher"
You can also drag applications directly from the Dash (or the 'Show Applications' list / 'Activities' overview on Ubuntu 17.10 and later) into the launcher/dock.
To add applications to the Dash (then you press the windows key), Go to
~/.local/share/applications and create your
.desktop files there.
- Open Nautilus (also called Files (the file manager))
- Browse to
~/.local/share/applications(ctrl + h to show hidden folders/files)
- Right click and choose create empty document
- Name the file
- Enter in a valid desktop contents (sample below)
- Save it and now that entry will show when you press the windows key under applications.
A much easier way...
sudo apt-get install alacarte
alacarte and create menu entries as you like. They will show in the unity launcher.
Sample desktop file (from sublime text 2)
#!/usr/bin/env xdg-open [Desktop Entry] Version=1.0 Name=Sublime Text 2 # Only KDE 4 seems to use GenericName, so we reuse the KDE strings. # From Ubuntu's language-pack-kde-XX-base packages, version 9.04-20090413. GenericName=Text Editor Exec=subl Terminal=false Icon="/opt/Sublime Text 2/Icon/48x48/sublime_text.png" Type=Application Categories=TextEditor;IDE;Development X-Ayatana-Desktop-Shortcuts=NewWindow Icon[en_US]=/opt/Sublime Text 2/Icon/128x128/sublime_text.png [NewWindow Shortcut Group] Name=New Window Exec=subl -n TargetEnvironment=Unity