After research no related answer to adapt to my problem was found. I have 2 laptops and a pc that run Lucid. Laptops now were updated to 2.6.32-45 but the pc stays at 2.6.32-42 while other software are updated as usual. I think there must be something wrong in the pc but my ability to dig that out is very limited. How can I make the pc to get newer kernel updated as do the laptops?

wijit@aeh:~$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
[sudo] password for wijit: 
Ign cdrom://Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS _Lucid Lynx_ - Release i386 (20110211.1) lucid Release.gpg
Ign cdrom://Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS _Lucid Lynx_ - Release i386 (20110211.1)/ lucid/main Translation-en_US
Ign cdrom://Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS _Lucid Lynx_ - Release i386 (20110211.1)/ lucid/restricted Translation-en_US
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid Release.gpg                    
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid/main Translation-en_US        
Hit http://dl.google.com stable Release.gpg                                    
Ign http://dl.google.com/linux/earth/deb/ stable/main Translation-en_US        
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid/restricted Translation-en_US  
Hit http://dl.google.com stable Release                                        
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid/universe Translation-en_US    
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid/multiverse Translation-en_US  
Hit http://dl.google.com stable/main Packages                                  
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates Release.gpg            
Get:1 http://linux.dropbox.com lucid Release.gpg [489B]                        
Ign http://linux.dropbox.com/ubuntu/ lucid/main Translation-en_US              
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main Translation-en_US
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/restricted Translation-en_US
Hit http://archive.canonical.com lucid Release.gpg                             
Ign http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/ lucid/partner Translation-en_US       
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/universe Translation-en_US
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net lucid Release.gpg                                 
Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net/tualatrix/ppa/ubuntu/ lucid/main Translation-en_US
Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org lucid Release.gpg                            
Get:2 http://linux.dropbox.com lucid Release [2,599B]                          
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/multiverse Translation-en_US
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security Release.gpg           
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-security/main Translation-en_US
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-security/restricted Translation-en_US
Hit http://archive.canonical.com lucid Release                                 
Get:3 http://linux.dropbox.com lucid/main Packages [1,029B]                    
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-security/universe Translation-en_US
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net lucid Release                                     
Ign http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-security/multiverse Translation-en_US
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid Release                        
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates Release                
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security Release               
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/main Packages                  
Hit http://archive.canonical.com lucid/partner Packages                        
Ign http://packages.medibuntu.org/ lucid/free Translation-en_US                
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net lucid/main Packages                               
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/restricted Packages            
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/main Sources                   
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/restricted Sources             
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/universe Packages              
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/universe Sources               
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/multiverse Packages            
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid/multiverse Sources             
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/main Packages          
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/restricted Packages    
Ign http://packages.medibuntu.org/ lucid/non-free Translation-en_US            
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/main Sources           
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/restricted Sources     
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/universe Packages      
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/universe Sources       
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/multiverse Packages    
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-updates/multiverse Sources     
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/main Packages         
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/restricted Packages   
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/main Sources          
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/restricted Sources    
Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org lucid Release                                
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/universe Packages     
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/universe Sources      
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/multiverse Packages   
Hit http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th lucid-security/multiverse Sources    
Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org lucid/free Packages                          
Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org lucid/non-free Packages
Fetched 4,117B in 4s (827B/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
The following packages will be upgraded:
  libc-bin libc-dev-bin libc6 libc6-dev libc6-i686 vim-common vim-tiny
7 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 11.5MB of archives.
After this operation, 0B of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
Get:1 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main libc-bin     2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12 [731kB]
Get:2 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main libc6 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12 [3,909kB]
Get:3 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main libc6-i686 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12 [1,240kB]                                        
Get:4 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main libc-dev-bin 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12 [213kB]                                        
Get:5 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main libc6-dev 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12 [4,891kB]                                         
Get:6 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main vim-tiny 2:7.2.330-1ubuntu3.1 [341kB]                                          
Get:7 http://ubuntu-archive.sit.kmutt.ac.th/ lucid-updates/main vim-common 2:7.2.330-1ubuntu3.1 [174kB]                                        
Fetched 11.5MB in 15s (743kB/s)                                                                                                                
Preconfiguring packages ...
(Reading database ... 240412 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to replace libc-bin 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.11 (using .../libc-bin_2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement libc-bin ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up libc-bin (2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12) ...

(Reading database ... 240412 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to replace libc6 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.11 (using .../libc6_2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement libc6 ...
Setting up libc6 (2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12) ...

Processing triggers for libc-bin ...
ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
(Reading database ... 240412 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to replace libc6-i686 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.11 (using .../libc6-i686_2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement libc6-i686 ...
Preparing to replace libc-dev-bin 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.11 (using .../libc-dev-bin_2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement libc-dev-bin ...
Preparing to replace libc6-dev 2.11.1-0ubuntu7.11 (using .../libc6-dev_2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement libc6-dev ...
Preparing to replace vim-tiny 2:7.2.330-1ubuntu3 (using .../vim-tiny_2%3a7.2.330-1ubuntu3.1_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement vim-tiny ...
Preparing to replace vim-common 2:7.2.330-1ubuntu3 (using .../vim-common_2%3a7.2.330-1ubuntu3.1_i386.deb) ...
Unpacking replacement vim-common ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up libc6-i686 (2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12) ...

Setting up libc-dev-bin (2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12) ...
Setting up libc6-dev (2.11.1-0ubuntu7.12) ...
Setting up vim-common (2:7.2.330-1ubuntu3.1) ...

Setting up vim-tiny (2:7.2.330-1ubuntu3.1) ...

Processing triggers for libc-bin ...
ldconfig deferred processing now taking place

Sorry for late response. This old pc is at my home. Here is dpkg's results:

wijit@aeh:~$ dpkg -l | grep linux-image
rc  linux-image-2.6.32-40-generic        2.6.32-40.87                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
rc  linux-image-2.6.32-41-generic        2.6.32-41.94                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-42-generic        2.6.32-42.96                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
  • Can you run sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade, and add the output to the question or to pastebin.com. – mikewhatever Nov 28 '12 at 0:47
  • Having read somewhere that installation of Precise on an old machine may be too risky and I decided to have it run with Lucid. I put the result set of the 2 apt-get commands you recommended to the question. Thanks for your kindly mind. – wijit Nov 29 '12 at 15:00
  • That looks OK, no held back kernel packages there. So, how about the output of dpkg -l | grep linux-image? That should show the installed kernel version. – mikewhatever Nov 29 '12 at 15:08
  • Did it. However, another new column to the right made me headace. – wijit Nov 30 '12 at 15:44
  • Thanks for the outputs. Apparently, your system is missing the meta-package, linux-image-generic. That is what pulls in newer kernel versions. To install it, run sudo apt-get install linux-image-generic. ...and by the way, there's nothing wrong with the column on the right. – mikewhatever Nov 30 '12 at 15:55

Apparently, your system is missing the meta-package, linux-image-generic. That is what pulls in newer kernel versions. To install it, run

sudo apt-get install linux-image-generic

That should install the latest available kernel, which will be used after a reboot.

To remove the old kernels and headers, you can run the following command, or use other ways as described in How do I remove old kernel versions:

dpkg -l linux-* | awk '/^ii/{ print $2}' | grep -v -e `uname -r | cut -f1,2 -d"-"` | grep -e [0-9] | xargs sudo apt-get -y purge

...and by the way, there's nothing wrong with the column on the right.

  • Great! Many many thanks, Mike! I'm not confident if I ask a question here. Would it be the same if I did it in Synaptic Package Manager? – wijit Dec 1 '12 at 4:43
  • Yes, can you can do all of the above in Synaptic, after all, Synaptic is just a GUI for APT. – mikewhatever Dec 1 '12 at 5:43

That last number is patch level. It has nothing to do with version.

Without proper information I am going to say that the laptop kernels have more ubuntu specific patches then then pc kernels (not that the number is all ubuntu specific).

Both machines are running 2.6.32.

So in your example. Both machines run

Major 2
Minor 6
Micro 32
Patch (from Debian, you, Ubuntu, Bob in accounting, random person 64) 45 or 42

That last number is really unimportant for comparing versions.

  • Example of different patch levels could be different architecture, or perhaps server v.s. desktop v.s. netbook patches. – coteyr Nov 28 '12 at 3:17
  • I'd refer you to: wiki.ubuntu.com/Kernel/FAQ - The kernel naming convention used is: <base kernel version>-<ABI number>.<upload number>-<flavour>, so the user is seeing different upload numbers. Each time an upload occurs this upload number will be bumped. The upload contains all sorts of patches such as security fixes and bug fixes. So the last number is very important - if you don't get the latest kernel you won't have the latest fixes. – Colin Ian King Nov 28 '12 at 9:34
  • Also, there is NO difference between laptop kernels and PC kernels if they both are using the same kernels, for example, if both were using the -generic kernels then they would be identical if the version numbers are the same. – Colin Ian King Nov 28 '12 at 9:37
  • Never meant that there were differences between PC and laptop, but there certainly are between AMD and i386 or SMP/reattime/something else. Also the number that is different is ABI number which is just a arbitrary number, that is incremented with patches as I described. The ABI number can not and will not match across platforms. – coteyr Nov 28 '12 at 16:01
  • There are no differences in kernel version numbers between SMP and non-SMP. The kernel is the same for these - SMP is detected at boot time. Heaven knows, if we had to build SMP and non-SMP kernels it would make building and releasing even more painful. – Colin Ian King Nov 28 '12 at 18:32

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