How can I install Visual Studio?
I'd prefer to use it in Wine or PlayOnLinux if possible.
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You can try Wine, but per the Wine application database, Visual Studio generally works poorly under Wine:
From this Wine site page:
nothing, install fails
What does not
What was not tested
You'll need to run a virtual machine. Wine won't be able to handle it. Look into install VirtualBox (not necessarily the best but easier). You'll need to create a windows VM and then once you have windows installed install Visual Studio.
If you're looking at equivalent IDEs. Qt Creator, Eclipse, KDevelop, Anjuta, Intellij can all act as possible alternatives depending on the language you wish you develop in.
Possibly useful link on how install windows on VirtualBox: http://www.wikihow.com/Install-Windows-XP-on-Ubuntu-with-VirtualBox
You can use the Mono Development IDE to write .NET code in Ubuntu, rather than trying to use a Microsoft product in a non-Microsoft OS (which others have rightly pointed out is never going to be supported, easy, or in MS' best interests).
It has most of the features of Visual Studio, and will run faster and be more stable.
To install monodevelop, use this command in a terminal:
sudo apt-get install monodevelop
Monodevelop Home page: http://monodevelop.com/
Sorry to give you the wrong answer, but I really doubt this will ever be truly supported.
Some people might actually get it working someday, but Microsoft will most certainly never support this officially; or even make things easy for the community, for that matter. From what I know, running the MS Office suite itself is horribly painful, it becomes more difficult with each new version.
Don't take it personally. Business is business. And their share on development is not on supporting the opensource community. For all they care, they strive on making their tools less and less compatible overtime.
If you really need this inside Linux, the best choice would be to have Windows in a Virtual Machine.
Visual Studio is tightly integrated with Windows and Developing a .NET application using any language (C# or VB) takes more than just having Wine, and since Wine is not capable enough to provide complete development runtime as .NET in Linux.
If you want to develop software specifically in C#, on Linux, you can use MonoDevelop
Since, you're asking for Visual Studio 2010 (.NET 4.0), with MonoDevelop, you'll not be able to develop an app that particularly uses .NET 4, as of now MonoDevelop is in version 3.0.2 (somewhat equivalent to .NET 3.0).
You can still use Windows virtually within Ubuntu, using VirtualBox. And then install Visual Studio there, but still a serious app development is not recommended to be done in Virtualized environment.
You could try MonoDevelop, which is a clone of VisualStudio, but it hasn't as much features. MonoDevelop uses the Mono framework, a platform-independent implementation of C# and the CLI, but it's not fully compatible with .NET. You will have to port your .NET applications to Mono. At least you have to rewrite the UI, WPF isn't included in Mono and Winforms is crappy on Linux.
Although there are some Linux applications written in C# (Banshee, Tomboy, Pinta, PDFMod, Smuxi), .NET/Mono isn't very popular on Linux. It's not officially supported by Microsoft, and the developers of Mono (Xamarin) are actually focusing on mobile devices (Android, iOS) and not the Linux desktop. I recommend you to switch to another IDE and programming language that is fully supported on Linux. If you really can't live without .NET (e.g because you make your living writing .NET programs), you have to keep using Windows, because that's the only platform it supports.
Now Microsoft offer a cross platform version of visual studio. It's Not feature rich as Visual Studio Windows Edition.
Follow the white rabbit :) https://www.visualstudio.com/en-us/products/code-vs.aspx
As another option all the Jetbrains IDEs are in Java, have installers for Linux, and are excellent. They are also free if you are a student or teacher.
(Its ironic how much of a boon to Linux java has been given all the hate directed at it by Linux C snobs back in the day.)
I use Rider for C# and Webstorm for all the Web stuff including TypeScript, and vastly prefer them to the bloated mess that is VS.