I don't know what files or file types are there on the hard drive nor do I know the file system in which the hard disk is written on. I am not able to view it in the home folder after booting from the liveCD.
Open GUI application Disks, and find the drive you want to mount from the pane on the left. Within that drive, find the partition you want to mount using the drive's partition diagram.
When you click on the partition, the information beneath the partition diagram will show the drive's device identifier, in a line like:
Replacing the question marks above with your device identifier, use command line 'mount' to mount the partition:
For an encrypted partition, see this answer to "Mount encrypted volumes from command line?"