108

I'm creating a simple bash script and I want to create a select menu in it, like this:

$./script

echo "Choose your option:"

1) Option 1  
2) Option 2  
3) Option 3  
4) Quit  

And according to user's choice, I want different actions to be executed. I'm a bash shell scripting noob, I've searched the web for some answers, but got nothing really concrete.

  • The question is old and protected, but I use fzf. Try seq 10 | fzf. The drawback is that fzf is not installed by default. You can find fzf here: github.com/junegunn/fzf – Lynch Nov 19 '18 at 15:33

11 Answers 11

123
#!/bin/bash
# Bash Menu Script Example

PS3='Please enter your choice: '
options=("Option 1" "Option 2" "Option 3" "Quit")
select opt in "${options[@]}"
do
    case $opt in
        "Option 1")
            echo "you chose choice 1"
            ;;
        "Option 2")
            echo "you chose choice 2"
            ;;
        "Option 3")
            echo "you chose choice $REPLY which is $opt"
            ;;
        "Quit")
            break
            ;;
        *) echo "invalid option $REPLY";;
    esac
done

Add break statements wherever you need the select loop to exit. If a break is not performed, the select statement loops and the menu is re-displayed.

In the third option, I included variables that are set by the select statement to demonstrate that you have access to those values. If you choose it, it will output:

you chose choice 3 which is Option 3

You can see that $REPLY contains the string you entered at the prompt. It is used as an index into the array ${options[@]} as if the array were 1 based. The variable $opt contains the string from that index in the array.

Note that the choices could be a simple list directly in the select statement like this:

select opt in foo bar baz 'multi word choice'

but you can't put such a list in a scalar variable because of the spaces in one of the choices.

You can also use file globbing if you are choosing among files:

select file in *.tar.gz
  • @Abdull: That's the intended behavior. The "Quit" option executes a break which breaks out of the select loop. You can add break anywhere you need it. The Bash manual states "The commands are executed after each selection until a break command is executed, at which point the select command completes." – Dennis Williamson Dec 7 '15 at 17:31
  • FWIW, running this on 14.04 with GNU bash 4.3.11 produces errors on line 9: ./test.sh: line 9: syntax error near unexpected token "Option 1"' ./test.sh: line 9: ` "Option 1")'` – Brian Morton Dec 8 '16 at 14:59
  • @BrianMorton: I can't reproduce that. It's likely you're missing a quote or some other character earlier in the script (or have an extra). – Dennis Williamson Dec 8 '16 at 18:37
  • Should this work on Raspberry Pi A+, raspbian wheezy? I'm new to both. – Rod Jun 3 '17 at 5:39
  • 2
    @dtmland: PS3 is the prompt for the select command. It is used automatically and doesn't need to be referenced explicitly. PS3 and select documentation. – Dennis Williamson Nov 30 '17 at 20:55
53

Not a new answer per se, but since there's no accepted answer yet, here are a few coding tips and tricks, for both select and zenity:

title="Select example"
prompt="Pick an option:"
options=("A" "B" "C")

echo "$title"
PS3="$prompt "
select opt in "${options[@]}" "Quit"; do 

    case "$REPLY" in

    1 ) echo "You picked $opt which is option $REPLY";;
    2 ) echo "You picked $opt which is option $REPLY";;
    3 ) echo "You picked $opt which is option $REPLY";;

    $(( ${#options[@]}+1 )) ) echo "Goodbye!"; break;;
    *) echo "Invalid option. Try another one.";continue;;

    esac

done

while opt=$(zenity --title="$title" --text="$prompt" --list \
                   --column="Options" "${options[@]}"); do

    case "$opt" in
    "${options[0]}" ) zenity --info --text="You picked $opt, option 1";;
    "${options[1]}" ) zenity --info --text="You picked $opt, option 2";;
    "${options[2]}" ) zenity --info --text="You picked $opt, option 3";;
    *) zenity --error --text="Invalid option. Try another one.";;
    esac

done

Worth mentioning:

  • Both will loop until the user explicitly chooses Quit (or Cancel for zenity). This is a good approach for interactive script menus: after a choice is selected and action performed, menu is presented again for another choice. If choice is meant to be one-time only, just use break after esac (the zenity approach could be further reduced also)

  • Both case are index-based, rather than value-based. I think this is easier to code and maintain

  • Array is also used for zenity approach.

  • "Quit" option is not among the initial, original options. It is "added" when needed, so your array stay clean. Afterall, "Quit" is not needed for zenity anyway, user can just click "Cancel" (or close the window) to exit. Notice how both uses the same, untouched array of options.

  • PS3 and REPLY vars can not be renamed. select is hardcoded to use those. All other variables in script (opt, options, prompt, title) can have any names you want, provided you do the adjustments

  • Awesome explanation. Thank you. This question still ranks high on Google, so too bad it is closed. – MountainX Jun 30 '13 at 8:44
  • You could use the same case structure for the select version that you're using for the zenity version: case "$opt" in . . . "${options[0]}" ) . . . (instead of $REPLY and the indices 1, 2, and 3). – Dennis Williamson May 29 '18 at 20:40
  • @DennisWilliamson, yes I could, and in "real" code it would be preferable to use the same structure in both cases. I intentionally wanted to show the relation between $REPLY, indexes and values. – MestreLion May 31 '18 at 20:28
41

Using dialog, the command would look like this:

dialog --clear --backtitle "Backtitle here" --title "Title here" --menu "Choose one of the following options:" 15 40 4 \
1 "Option 1" \
2 "Option 2" \
3 "Option 3"

enter image description here

Putting it in a script:

#!/bin/bash

HEIGHT=15
WIDTH=40
CHOICE_HEIGHT=4
BACKTITLE="Backtitle here"
TITLE="Title here"
MENU="Choose one of the following options:"

OPTIONS=(1 "Option 1"
         2 "Option 2"
         3 "Option 3")

CHOICE=$(dialog --clear \
                --backtitle "$BACKTITLE" \
                --title "$TITLE" \
                --menu "$MENU" \
                $HEIGHT $WIDTH $CHOICE_HEIGHT \
                "${OPTIONS[@]}" \
                2>&1 >/dev/tty)

clear
case $CHOICE in
        1)
            echo "You chose Option 1"
            ;;
        2)
            echo "You chose Option 2"
            ;;
        3)
            echo "You chose Option 3"
            ;;
esac
  • I'd like to note that I put the line TERMINAL=$(tty) at the top of my script and then in the CHOICE variable definition I changed 2>&1 >/dev/tty to 2>&1 >$TERMINAL to avoid redirection issues if the script was run in a different terminal context. – Shrout1 Jun 12 '18 at 14:37
  • 1
    What does the --backtitle parameter do? – TRiG Aug 31 '18 at 23:22
  • 1
    It’s the title of the bluescreen in the background. You can see it in the top left corner of the screenshot that reads “Backtitle here”. – Alaa Ali Aug 31 '18 at 23:25
13

You can use this simple script for creating options

#!/bin/bash
echo "select the operation ************  1)operation 1 2)operation 2 3)operation 3 4)operation 4 "

read n
case $n in
    1) commands for opn 1;;
    2) commands for opn 2;;
    3) commands for opn 3;;
    4) commands for  opn 4;;
    *) invalid option;;
esac
7

Since this is targeted at Ubuntu you should use whatever backend debconf is configured to use. You can find out the debconf backend with:

sudo -s "echo get debconf/frontend | debconf-communicate"

If it says "dialog" then it likely uses whiptail or dialog. On Lucid it's whiptail.

If that fails, use bash "select" as explained by Dennis Williamson.

  • 3
    This is probably overkill for that question, but +1 for mentioning whiptail and dialog! I wasnt aware of those commands... very sweet! – MestreLion Aug 5 '11 at 5:58
7
#!/bin/sh
show_menu(){
    NORMAL=`echo "\033[m"`
    MENU=`echo "\033[36m"` #Blue
    NUMBER=`echo "\033[33m"` #yellow
    FGRED=`echo "\033[41m"`
    RED_TEXT=`echo "\033[31m"`
    ENTER_LINE=`echo "\033[33m"`
    echo -e "${MENU}*********************************************${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${MENU}**${NUMBER} 1)${MENU} Mount dropbox ${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${MENU}**${NUMBER} 2)${MENU} Mount USB 500 Gig Drive ${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${MENU}**${NUMBER} 3)${MENU} Restart Apache ${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${MENU}**${NUMBER} 4)${MENU} ssh Frost TomCat Server ${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${MENU}**${NUMBER} 5)${MENU} ${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${MENU}*********************************************${NORMAL}"
    echo -e "${ENTER_LINE}Please enter a menu option and enter or ${RED_TEXT}enter to exit. ${NORMAL}"
    read opt
}
function option_picked() {
    COLOR='\033[01;31m' # bold red
    RESET='\033[00;00m' # normal white
    MESSAGE=${@:-"${RESET}Error: No message passed"}
    echo -e "${COLOR}${MESSAGE}${RESET}"
}

clear
show_menu
while [ opt != '' ]
    do
    if [[ $opt = "" ]]; then 
            exit;
    else
        case $opt in
        1) clear;
        option_picked "Option 1 Picked";
        sudo mount /dev/sdh1 /mnt/DropBox/; #The 3 terabyte
        menu;
        ;;

        2) clear;
            option_picked "Option 2 Picked";
            sudo mount /dev/sdi1 /mnt/usbDrive; #The 500 gig drive
        menu;
            ;;

        3) clear;
            option_picked "Option 3 Picked";
        sudo service apache2 restart;
            show_menu;
            ;;

        4) clear;
            option_picked "Option 4 Picked";
        ssh lmesser@ -p 2010;
            show_menu;
            ;;

        x)exit;
        ;;

        \n)exit;
        ;;

        *)clear;
        option_picked "Pick an option from the menu";
        show_menu;
        ;;
    esac
fi
done
  • 2
    I know this is old, but needs first line to read #!/bin/bash to compile. – JClar Dec 7 '14 at 12:15
  • Code review: The $ is missing from the $opt variable in the while statement. The if statement is redundant. Inconsistent indentation. Using menu in some places where it should be 'show_menu. show_menu` could be put at the top of the loop instead of being repeated in each case. Inconsistent indentation. Mixing use of single square brackets and doubled ones. Using hard-coded ANSI sequences instead of tput. Use of all-caps var names is not recommended. FGRED should be called bgred. Use of backticks instead of $(). Function definition should be consistent and don't use ... – Dennis Williamson May 29 '18 at 20:57
  • ...both forms together. Terminal semicolons aren't needed. Some colors, etc., defined twice. The case with \n will never be executed. Perhaps more. – Dennis Williamson May 29 '18 at 21:01
6

I have used Zenity, which seems always there in Ubuntu, works very well and has many capabilities. This is a sketch of a possible menu:

#! /bin/bash

selection=$(zenity --list "Option 1" "Option 2" "Option 3" --column="" --text="Text above column(s)" --title="My menu")

case "$selection" in
"Option 1")zenity --info --text="Do something here for No1";;
"Option 2")zenity --info --text="Do something here for No2";;
"Option 3")zenity --info --text="Do something here for No3";;
esac
  • Oops! sorry about the appearance of this snippet, first time posting and seems have to turn HTML off perhaps – LazyEchidna May 5 '11 at 1:36
  • Better, turned 'code sample' on in editing, sorry about that – LazyEchidna May 5 '11 at 1:47
5

Bash fancy menu

Try it out first, then visit my page for detailed description ... No need for external libraries or programs like dialog or zenity ...

#/bin/bash
# by oToGamez
# www.pro-toolz.net

      E='echo -e';e='echo -en';trap "R;exit" 2
    ESC=$( $e "\e")
   TPUT(){ $e "\e[${1};${2}H";}
  CLEAR(){ $e "\ec";}
  CIVIS(){ $e "\e[?25l";}
   DRAW(){ $e "\e%@\e(0";}
  WRITE(){ $e "\e(B";}
   MARK(){ $e "\e[7m";}
 UNMARK(){ $e "\e[27m";}
      R(){ CLEAR ;stty sane;$e "\ec\e[37;44m\e[J";};
   HEAD(){ DRAW
           for each in $(seq 1 13);do
           $E "   x                                          x"
           done
           WRITE;MARK;TPUT 1 5
           $E "BASH SELECTION MENU                       ";UNMARK;}
           i=0; CLEAR; CIVIS;NULL=/dev/null
   FOOT(){ MARK;TPUT 13 5
           printf "ENTER - SELECT,NEXT                       ";UNMARK;}
  ARROW(){ read -s -n3 key 2>/dev/null >&2
           if [[ $key = $ESC[A ]];then echo up;fi
           if [[ $key = $ESC[B ]];then echo dn;fi;}
     M0(){ TPUT  4 20; $e "Login info";}
     M1(){ TPUT  5 20; $e "Network";}
     M2(){ TPUT  6 20; $e "Disk";}
     M3(){ TPUT  7 20; $e "Routing";}
     M4(){ TPUT  8 20; $e "Time";}
     M5(){ TPUT  9 20; $e "ABOUT  ";}
     M6(){ TPUT 10 20; $e "EXIT   ";}
      LM=6
   MENU(){ for each in $(seq 0 $LM);do M${each};done;}
    POS(){ if [[ $cur == up ]];then ((i--));fi
           if [[ $cur == dn ]];then ((i++));fi
           if [[ $i -lt 0   ]];then i=$LM;fi
           if [[ $i -gt $LM ]];then i=0;fi;}
REFRESH(){ after=$((i+1)); before=$((i-1))
           if [[ $before -lt 0  ]];then before=$LM;fi
           if [[ $after -gt $LM ]];then after=0;fi
           if [[ $j -lt $i      ]];then UNMARK;M$before;else UNMARK;M$after;fi
           if [[ $after -eq 0 ]] || [ $before -eq $LM ];then
           UNMARK; M$before; M$after;fi;j=$i;UNMARK;M$before;M$after;}
   INIT(){ R;HEAD;FOOT;MENU;}
     SC(){ REFRESH;MARK;$S;$b;cur=`ARROW`;}
     ES(){ MARK;$e "ENTER = main menu ";$b;read;INIT;};INIT
  while [[ "$O" != " " ]]; do case $i in
        0) S=M0;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;$e "\n$(w        )\n";ES;fi;;
        1) S=M1;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;$e "\n$(ifconfig )\n";ES;fi;;
        2) S=M2;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;$e "\n$(df -h    )\n";ES;fi;;
        3) S=M3;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;$e "\n$(route -n )\n";ES;fi;;
        4) S=M4;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;$e "\n$(date     )\n";ES;fi;;
        5) S=M5;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;$e "\n$($e by oTo)\n";ES;fi;;
        6) S=M6;SC;if [[ $cur == "" ]];then R;exit 0;fi;;
 esac;POS;done
5

I have one more option that is a mixture of these answers but what makes it nice is that you only need to press one key and then the script continues thanks to the -n option of read. In this example, we are prompting to shutdown, reboot, or simply exit the script using ANS as our variable and the user only has to press E, R, or S. I also set the default to exit so if enter is pressed then the script will exit.

read -n 1 -p "Would you like to exit, reboot, or shutdown? (E/r/s) " ans;

case $ans in
    r|R)
        sudo reboot;;
    s|S)
        sudo poweroff;;
    *)
        exit;;
esac
2

There is already the same question in serverfault answered. The solution there uses whiptail.

  • Thanks, but as my script is for mainstream consumption, I don't want it to have any additional dependecies. But I'll bookmark that for use in the future, who knows. – Daniel Rodrigues Aug 8 '10 at 22:01
-1

Assuming you want to use a plain shell script menu (no fancy UI), check the menu example from http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/testbranch.html .

  • 1
    As with much of the other snippets in the advanced bash-scripting guide, those snippets contain bugs and bad practice. – geirha Feb 3 '11 at 23:39

protected by heemayl Aug 26 '15 at 19:00

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