137

I would like to build my own local repository on my LAN, so that machines on the LAN can update and upgrade from it. I want to download the packages and store them on my local server so that I can update, upgrade, install, etc, from it without using the internet.

3

10 Answers 10

104

From the Ubuntu Help wiki:

There are 4 steps to setting up a simple repository for yourself

1.Install dpkg-dev
2.Put the packages in a directory
3.Create a script that will scan the packages and create a file apt-get update can read
4. Add a line to your sources.list pointing at your repository

Install dpkg-dev

Type in a terminal

sudo apt-get install dpkg-dev

The Directory

Create a directory where you will keep your packages. For this example, we'll use /usr/local/mydebs.

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/mydebs

Now move your packages into the directory you've just created.

Previously downloaded Packages are generally stored on your system in the /var/cache/apt/archives directory. If you have installed apt-cacher you will have additional packages stored in its /packages directory.

The Script update-mydebs

It's a simple three liner:

#! /bin/bash
 cd /usr/local/mydebs
 dpkg-scanpackages . /dev/null | gzip -9c > Packages.gz

Cut and paste the above into gedit, and save it as update-mydebs in ~/bin. (the tilde '~' means your home directory. If ~/bin does not exist, create it: Ubuntu will put that directory in your PATH. It's a good place to put personal scripts). Next, make the script executable:

chmod u+x ~/bin/update-mydebs

How the script works:

dpkg-scanpackages looks at all the packages in mydebs, and the output is compressed and written to a file (Packages.gz) that apt-get update can read (see below for a reference that explains this in excruciating detail). /dev/null is an empty file; it is a substitute for an override file which holds some additional information about the packages, which in this case is not really needed. See deb-override(5) if you want to know about it.

Sources.list

add the line

deb file:/usr/local/mydebs ./

to your /etc/apt/sources.list, and you're done.

CD Option

You can burn the directory containing the debs to a CD and use that as a repository as well (good for sharing between computers). To use the CD as a repository, simply run

sudo apt-cdrom add

Using the Repository

Whenever you put a new deb in the mydebs directory, run

sudo update-mydebs
sudo apt-get update

Now your local packages can be manipulated with Synaptic, aptitude and the apt commands: apt-get, apt-cache, etc. When you attempt to apt-get install, any dependencies will be resolved for you, as long as they can be met.

Badly made packages will probably fail, but you won't have endured dpkg hell.

13
  • 4
    Could you explain the syntax on the line dpkg-scanpackages . /dev/null | gzip -9c > Packages.gz. What's /dev/null doing there. I read the man page too, but it wasn't quite clear. May 28, 2013 at 12:13
  • @blade19899 I need a small bit of clarification, please. I want a repository with just a few select packages in it, not every package I ever touched. Am I correct that this technique will give me that ability? The goal here is to have a repository that a software installation group can use on an isolated LAN, far away from the temptations to apt-get the unneeded.
    – Wes Miller
    Jun 28, 2013 at 19:24
  • @WesMiller I think u need I just edited his post!
    – blade19899
    Jun 28, 2013 at 21:53
  • @blade19899 I'm sorry, I don't understand your answer.
    – Wes Miller
    Jul 3, 2013 at 16:32
  • 15
    Note that if you use deb file:/usr/local/mydebs ./ in your /etc/apt/sources.list, you may face the problem E: The repository 'file:/home/path Release' does not have a Release file. N: Updating from such a repository can't be done securely, and is therefore disabled by default. To solve the problem use deb [trusted=yes] file:/usr/local/mydebs ./. Mar 19, 2019 at 14:26
47

*To make an offline Repository Over LAN *

Install a Local Apache Webserver

# apt-get install apache2

By default, Debian's Apache package will set up a website under /var/www on your system. For our purposes, that's fine, so there's no reason to do anything more. You can easily test it by pointing your favorite browser at http://localhost You should see the default post-installation web page which is actually stored in /var/www/index.html


Create a Debian Package Repository Directory

chose to create a directory /var/www/debs for this. Under it, you should create "architecture" directories, one for each architecture you need to support. If you're using just one computer (or type of computer), then you'll only need one -- typically "i386" for 32-bit systems or "amd64" for 64 bit. If you are using some other architecture, I'll assume you probably already know about this. Now just copy the ".deb" package files for a given architecture into the appropriate directories. If you now point your favorite web browser at http://localhost/debs/amd64 (for example) you'll see a listing of the packages for 64 bit systems.


Create a Packages.gz file

Now we need to create a catalog file for APT to use. This is done with a utility called "dpkg-scanpackages". Here's the commands I use to update the AMD64 packages on my LAN:

# cd /var/www/debs/

# dpkg-scanpackages amd64 | gzip -9c > amd64/Packages.gz




Make the repository known to APT

Now the only thing left to do is to let APT know about your repository. You do this by updating your /etc/apt/sources.list file. You'll need an entry like this one:

deb http://localhost/debs/ amd64/

I used the actual hostname of my system instead of localhost -- this way the code is the same for all of the computers on my LAN, but localhost will do just fine if you are running just one computer.
Now, update APT:

# apt-get update
2
  • 2
    Adding that line to /etc/apt/sources.list will break updates when not in the LAN, won't it?
    – Felix
    Dec 3, 2015 at 14:43
  • 2
    For Ubuntu 16.04, you might need to replace /var/www/debs in this answer with /var/www/html/debs. Or you will need extra steps to manually edit your apache configuration in /etc/apache2 Feb 18, 2018 at 22:06
34

Creating an Authenticated Repository

I've had a look at the answers here and on other sites and most have the (IMHO big) disadvantage that you're setting up an unauthenticated repository. This means you need to run apt-get with --allow-unauthenticated to install packages from it. This can be a security risk, especially in scripts where the packages you're installing might not all be from your local repository.

Note that I haven't covered here how to make it available over the LAN, but that's fairly generic config using Apache or nginx (see the other answers here).

Setup the repo directory

mkdir /home/srv/packages/local-xenial
cd /home/srv/packages/local-xenial

Then add a line like this to sources.list:

deb file:/home/srv/packages/local-xenial/ ./

Adding and Removing Packages

remove packages

rm /home/srv/packages/local-xenial/some_package_idont_like

add packages

cp /some/dir/apackage.deb /home/srv/packages/local-xenial

now run the following script which generates the Packages, Release and InRelease files and signs them with your gpg private key:

#!/bin/bash

if [ -z "$1" ]; then
       echo -e "usage: `basename $0` DISTRO
where DISTRO is the Ubuntu version codename (e.g. 14.04 is trusty)\n
The way to use this script is to do the changes to the repo first, i.e. delete or copy in the .deb file to /srv/packages/local-DISTRO, and then run this script\n
This script can be run as an unprivileged user - root is not needed so long as your user can write to the local repository directory"
else
    cd /srv/packages/local-"$1"

    # Generate the Packages file
    dpkg-scanpackages . /dev/null > Packages
    gzip --keep --force -9 Packages

    # Generate the Release file
    cat conf/distributions > Release
    # The Date: field has the same format as the Debian package changelog entries,
    # that is, RFC 2822 with time zone +0000
    echo -e "Date: `LANG=C date -Ru`" >> Release
    # Release must contain MD5 sums of all repository files (in a simple repo just the Packages and Packages.gz files)
    echo -e 'MD5Sum:' >> Release
    printf ' '$(md5sum Packages.gz | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1)' %16d Packages.gz' $(wc --bytes Packages.gz | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1) >> Release
    printf '\n '$(md5sum Packages | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1)' %16d Packages' $(wc --bytes Packages | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1) >> Release
    # Release must contain SHA256 sums of all repository files (in a simple repo just the Packages and Packages.gz files)
    echo -e '\nSHA256:' >> Release
    printf ' '$(sha256sum Packages.gz | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1)' %16d Packages.gz' $(wc --bytes Packages.gz | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1) >> Release
    printf '\n '$(sha256sum Packages | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1)' %16d Packages' $(wc --bytes Packages | cut --delimiter=' ' --fields=1) >> Release

    # Clearsign the Release file (that is, sign it without encrypting it)
    gpg --clearsign --digest-algo SHA512 --local-user $USER -o InRelease Release
    # Release.gpg only need for older apt versions
    # gpg -abs --digest-algo SHA512 --local-user $USER -o Release.gpg Release

    # Get apt to see the changes
    sudo apt-get update
fi

Example Contents of conf/distributions file

Origin: My_Local_Repo Label: My_Local_Repo Codename: xenial Architectures: i386 amd64 Components: main Description: My local APT repository SignWith: 12345ABC

Links

https://wiki.debian.org/RepositoryFormat

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1090731

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CreateAuthenticatedRepository

3
  • @Phillip your edit used date -Rc, I corrected it to date -Ru assuming that's what you meant from the edit description
    – muru
    Jan 30, 2017 at 11:42
  • Thanks, I only recently started getting warnings from apt about this due to the date generated being in the local TZ and not UTC. I fixed it in my own script but forget to edit it here Jan 30, 2017 at 22:14
  • 1
    @KevinJohnson I've updated the main answer now with an example of that file from my local apt repo Nov 4, 2017 at 2:36
9

You can also setup local source server by nginx and reprepro:

  1. Install debian packages

    sudo apt-get install reprepro nginx 
    
  2. make directories for reprepro and edit it

    sudo mkdir -p /srv/reprepro/ubuntu/{conf,dists,incoming,indices,logs,pool,project,tmp}
    
    $ cd /srv/reprepro/ubuntu/
    $ sudo chown -R `whoami` . # changes the repository owner to the current user
    

    /srv/reprepro/ubuntu/conf/distributions

    Origin: Your Name
    Label: Your repository name
    Codename: karmic
    Architectures: i386 amd64 source
    Components: main
    Description: Description of repository you are creating
    SignWith: YOUR-KEY-ID
    

    /srv/reprepro/ubuntu/conf/options

    ask-passphrase
    basedir .
    
  3. Include it in reprepro, build it

    $ reprepro includedeb karmic /path/to/my-package_0.1-1.deb \
    # change /path/to/my-package_0.1-1.deb to the path to your package
    
  4. Config nginx:

    /etc/nginx/sites-available/vhost-packages.conf

    server {
      listen 80;
      server_name packages.internal;
    
      access_log /var/log/nginx/packages-access.log;
      error_log /var/log/nginx/packages-error.log;
    
      location / {
        root /srv/reprepro;
        index index.html;
      }
    
      location ~ /(.*)/conf {
        deny all;
      }
    
      location ~ /(.*)/db {
        deny all;
      }
    }
    
  5. Optimize bucket size:

    /etc/nginx/conf.d/server_names_hash_bucket_size.conf

    server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
    

Reference to Install Guide Link

3
  • 4
    Whilst this may theoretically answer the question, it would be preferable to include the essential parts of the answer here, and provide the link for reference.
    – gertvdijk
    Jul 3, 2013 at 9:35
  • @elprup: you must have forgotten to update that answer :) May 18, 2014 at 2:12
  • reprepor does not support multiple versions of the same package. It sounds strange, but this is the way reprepro works
    – maxadamo
    Jun 19, 2019 at 9:01
9

The instructions in @BigSack's answer and Ubuntu's official wiki post didn't work for me on Ubuntu 18.04, until I made these two changes:

  1. Generate a plain, uncompressed Packages file (when executing this, the working directory must be where all packages are located)

    cd /usr/local/mydebs
    dpkg-scanpackages -m . > Packages
    
  2. Add the following entry in /etc/apt/sources.list

    deb [trusted=yes] file:/usr/local/mydebs ./
    
4

There are several reasons you may want to create a local repository. The first is that you want to save on bandwidth if you have multiple Ubuntu machines to update. For example if you had 25 Ubuntu machines that all needed updating at least once a week, you would significantly save bandwidth because you could do all but the repository locally.

Most organizations have decent bandwidth for their network gateways but this bandwidth is a precious commodity that needs to be used wisely.

Many organizations still have routers with 10MB or 100MB limits at the gateway but 1 GB network connections internally so bandwidth could be better used internally. The second reason for creating your own repository is that you can control what applications are loaded on your internal Ubuntu machines.

You can remove any applications your organization does not want to use on the local network from the repository that updates the machines. Even better, you can create a test box and test applications and versions before you allow them to roll out into your network assuring security and stability.

You first have to setup a mirror, to do that you need to Just press Ctrl+Alt+T on your keyboard to open Terminal. When it opens, run the command below.

apt-get install apt-mirror 

Once you have your set up apt-mirror you can start your download of the repository with this command.

apt-mirror /etc/apt/mirror.list1

Read on

1Source:Create an Ubuntu Repository

1
  • sorry, link is dead
    – xamiro
    Sep 25, 2016 at 14:41
3

To make an offline local Repository
1. make a dir accessible (atleast by root)

sudo mkdir /var/my-local-repo

  1. copy all the deb files to this directory.
  2. scan the directory

sudo dpkg-scanpackages /var/my-local-repo /dev/null > /var/my-local-repo/Packages

  1. add the local repository to sources

echo "deb file:/var/my-local-repo ./" > /tmp/my-local.list

sudo mv /tmp/my-local.list /etc/apt/sources.list.d/my-local.list

sudo apt-get update

1
3

I tried to use apt-rdepends like in the selected answer, but when I tried to install the package from my local repository, it complained about missing dependencies.

apt-rdepends wasn't listing some of the dependencies for my package. I suspect it has something to do with the fact, that apt-cache show shows multiple records for it.

Instead I used apt-cache depends, and that did the trick:

Getting a recursive list of dependencies

apt-cache depends <packagename> -i --recurse

-i: important dependencies only --recurse: recursive

Turn it into a digestible list

  • Removing symbols & spaces: | tr -d "|,<,>, "
  • Removing Depends: & PreDepends: | sed -e 's/^Depends://g' | sed -e 's/^PreDepends://g'
  • Sorting the list: | sort
  • Only unique values: | uniq > list.txt

Complete command:

apt-cache depends <packagename> -i --recurse | tr -d "|,<,>, " | sed -e \
's/^Depends://g' | sed -e 's/^PreDepends://g' | sort | uniq > list.txt

Download the packages

for i in $( cat list.txt ); do apt-get download $i; done;

Scan for the packages and turn it into Packages.gz

dpkg-scanpackages . /dev/null | gzip -9c > Packages.gz
1
  • 1
    Might be a good idea to reference which answer you're talking about...
    – anonymous2
    Jun 8, 2016 at 14:03
0

How to create CD/DVD .ISO repository?

The following is a script I had created (in Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial xerus) to create .ISO archive of .deb packages I had collected over time. I used to save a copy of every .deb packages downloaded, installed, system updates, (every .deb in /var/cache/apt/archives before they disappeared, if they did) etc. so that my collection had every packages I'd ever need in an install of Ubuntu version, including their dependencies.

This script can be used to create a directory structure and necessary files to be able to use the .iso file as an APT repository. This script, however, does not create the ISO image, and tools such as xfburn may be used. More help on what to copy to the root of the ISO image can be obtained in the script help.

You can save the following script as: deb_cache_pkg_to_repository_image_v0.1.sh .

#!/bin/bash

## v0.1

#  This script does nothing more than easing the following few notable steps:
#  ##  Change to the directory where the package archives are cached:
#  cd /usr/local/deb_packages
#  ##  Generate 'Packages' file and compress it for `apt':
#  dpkg-scanpackages . /dev/null | gzip -9c > Packages.gz


declare __SCRIPT_NAME="${0##*/}"

# declare __SCRIPT_DIR="$( cd "$( dirname "${BASH_SOURCE[0]}" )" && pwd )"
declare __SCRIPT_INITIAL_WDIR="${PWD}"

declare __SCRIPT_ACTION=""
declare -a __DIR_REPOSITORY
declare __DIR_BASE=""           ##  The BASE_DIRECTORY directory
declare __LABEL_CODENAME=""     ##  The UBUNTU_CODENAME directory
declare __LABEL_BINARY_DIR="binary-i386"
declare __LABEL_SOURCE_DIR="sources_archive"
declare __PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE="Packages"
declare __PATH_DEFAULT_BASENAME="/tmp/prepare_apt_archive_for_ISO"
declare __DEFAULT_README=""

declare -i __INDEX=0

declare __DIR_TMP="/tmp/.${__SCRIPT_NAME%.sh}"
declare __TMP_PKG_DETAIL="${__DIR_TMP}/Packages"
declare __LOG_DPKG_SCANPKG_MESSAGES="${__DIR_TMP}/dpkg_scanpackages_message.log"
declare __TMP_PRELIM_DEB_LIST="${__DIR_TMP}/all_required_debs_path.list"
declare __TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST="${__DIR_TMP}/sufficient_required_debs_path.list"
declare __LOG_SCANNED_DIRS="${__DIR_TMP}/dpkg_scanpackages_directories.log"

function _Msg_Err() {
    echo "${@}" >&2
}

function _Show_Help() {
    while read -r ; do
        echo "${REPLY}"
    done <<-__EOF
SYNOPSIS:  ${__SCRIPT_NAME} [OPTIONS] ACTION DIRECTORY_1 DIRECTORY_2 ...
    where DIRECTORY_1 DIRECTORY_2 ... DIRECTORY_N are the directory(ies) you
    must specify to scan for .deb packages. e.g. '/var/cache/apt/archives/' or
    the directories where you have downloaded all those.

ACTION:
    prepare
        Creates the (temporary) directory structure, copies the required (from
        among those available, as reported by \`dpkg-scanpackages') packages,
        and generates proper 'Packages' and 'Packages.gz' files (containing the
        package details). (This is the command you want to use initially; this
        scans the enlisted directories with \`dpkg-scanpackages' and copies the
        required ones into the BASE_DIRECTORY and then scans the .deb files to
        prepare the 'Packages.xz' file.)

    list
        Lists out the package names, the latest ones, which have to be archived
        ignoring the old packages. (Getting a "complete list" here, and for
        preparing for backup is dependent on whether the specified repositories
        as DIRECTORY_1, DIRECTORY_2, DIRECTORY_N contain packages with all their
        Debian dependencies. This script does not check or resolve any of the
        "dependencies unmet" issues and assumes complete repositories are
        maintained in DIRECTORY_N : a limitation of this script.) 

OPTIONS:

    -D <BASE_DIRECTORY> | -
        Use this to specify the base <BASE_DIRECTORY> where archive structure
        will be created. e.g.: /tmp/prepare_apt_archive_for_ISO and also make
        sure that the disk volume has enough space to copy the packages to
        archive temporary. The default path '${__PATH_DEFAULT_BASENAME}'
        will be used if the argument is a dash.

        This structure will not be deleted by the script and must be done by
        hand after you're done with creating a .iso image of \`apt' readable
        package repository.

        The contents of this directory should be at the DVD root; the contents
        in this directory are the ones you will import to, say 'Xfburn' DVD
        archive project, and create the ISO image.

    -l <UBUNTU_CODENAME>
        The label (name) for the directory <UBUNTU_CODENAME> which is to be
        placed at the root of the ISO image. See ARCHIVE STRUCTURE for more.

    -h
        Show this help and exit.

    Example usage:
        $ ./deb_cache_pkg_to_repository_image_v0.1.sh -D - \\
            -l xenial_xubuntu1604 \\
            prepare /var/cache/apt/archives/ /opt/backup_deb_repo/


ARCHIVE STRUCTURE:

    \$BASE_DIRECTORY/
    |
    +--  README.info
    |
    +--  \$UBUNTU_CODENAME/
         |
         +--  binary-i386/
         |    |
         |    +--  ( *.deb )
         |
         +--  Packages
         +--  Packages.gz
         |
         +--  sources_archive/
              |
              +--  ( sources_of_packages_in_respective_directories )

    In the above archive structure, the \$BASE_DIRECTORY can be any temporary
    directory which will hold the the structure that begins at \$UBUNTU_CODENAME
    directory which may be the codename of the Ubuntu release for which the
    packages (binary and sources) are being archived or the name of the distro
    with release number. e.g.:  "bionic" or "xubuntu16.04.4" which will be at
    the root / of the ISO image which may be created with tools like Xfburn.
    If there are any README.info or other similar help documents, those should
    be manually copied to this directory.

    This script will "copy" all the required Debian package archives (as
    determined by \`dpkg-scanpackages' in the 'binary/' or 'binary-i386/'
    directory. Proper 'Packages' and 'Packages.gz' files containing details of
    each packages in the 'binary/' directory will be placed alongside in the
    \$UBUNTU_CODENAME directory. Also, a sub-directory named 'sources_archive/'
    may be created to hold the source code archives of application packages
    (and their dependent source) in the respective directories.


    Using the CD/DVD media thus created:
    ALTERNATIVE 01:
    Add the following line to your '/etc/apt/sources.list' file:
        deb file:/iso_mount_point ./
            where '/iso_mount_point' is the directory where the ISO is mounted.
                ( Tested again, twice. This works fine. )

        ## deb file:/${__LABEL_CODENAME} ${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}
        ##     or
        ## deb file:/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR} ./
        ##     whichever works (note: the first method has been verified to be
        ##     working).


    ALTERNATIVE 02:
    If the created ISO is compatible to be used with \`apt-cdrom', the following
    steps are required to use the archived repository on the CD/DVD:
        01.  Burn to a CD/DVD; (or else, if you could, mount the ISO image);
        02.  Edit the '/etc/fstab' file to add the following line:
                /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom iso9660 ro 0 0
             where '/dev/cdrom' is the device file, '/media/cdrom' is the mount
             point 'iso9660' the filesystem of the CD (udf if DVD) to mount
             with 'ro' mount option, use zeros for the last two. (Sometimes, I
             could specify .iso image path in place of '/dev/cdrom' and suggest
             the mount point at any path in place of '/media/cdrom'. For detail,
             on the syntax, consult the help page for \`mount' command or the
             'fstab' file.
        03.  Run the command:
                apt-cdrom add
        04.  Now, you may use \`apt' to update and install from the CD/DVD:
                apt-get update

    Note: After you add the repository (esp. on an offline computer), and
    perform a \`apt-get update', the subsequent querries (in offline system)
    were limited to the packages available in the local repositories; which
    means you will not be able to search or view discriptions of any package
    beyound the locally archived ones. (Find a way to backup those!!)

    ALTERNATIVE 03:
        Read the solution in the link: https://askubuntu.com/a/1501055/212123
    AUTHOR: Avadhesh J. Thapa

__EOF
}

function _Write_Default_Readme() {
    ##  Requires: __DEFAULT_README , __DIR_BASE variables to initialized
    ##  and respective files/directories created.
    ##  Make sure these are satisfied before this function gets called.

    if command touch "${__DEFAULT_README}" ; then
        > "${__DEFAULT_README}"
        while read -r ; do
            echo "${REPLY}" >> "${__DEFAULT_README}"
        done <<-__EOF
Using this CD/DVD media:
ALTERNATIVE 01:
Add the following line to your '/etc/apt/sources.list' file:
    deb file:/iso_mount_point ./
        where '/iso_mount_point' is the directory where the ISO is mounted.
            ( Tested again, twice. This works fine. )

    ## deb file:/${__LABEL_CODENAME} ${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}
    ##     or
    ## deb file:/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR} ./
    ##     whichever works (note: the first method has been verified to be
    ##     working).


ALTERNATIVE 02:
If the ISO created is compatible to be used with \`apt-cdrom', the following
steps are required to use the archived repository on the CD/DVD:
    01.  Burn to a CD/DVD; (or else, if you could, mount the ISO image);
    02.  Edit the '/etc/fstab' file to add the following line:
            /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom iso9660 ro 0 0
         where '/dev/cdrom' is the device file, '/media/cdrom' is the mount
         point 'iso9660' the filesystem of the CD (udf if DVD) to mount
         with 'ro' mount option, use zeros for the last two. (Sometimes, I
         could specify .iso image path in place of '/dev/cdrom' and suggest
         the mount point at any path in place of '/media/cdrom'. For detail,
         on the syntax, consult the help page for \`mount' command or the
         'fstab' file.
    03.  Run the command:
            apt-cdrom add
    04.  Now, you may use \`apt' to update and install from the CD/DVD:
            apt-get update

    ALTERNATIVE 03:
            Read the solution in the link: https://askubuntu.com/a/1501055/212123
    
__EOF
    fi
}

function _Scan_Packages_Temp() {
    ##  Input: name reference to the array variable containing directories to scan
    ##  Output: outputs a few files of which the main required file is
    ## "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" containing the path of all .deb packages
    ##  that should be copied to the archiving directory.

    declare -n deb_repos=${1}   ##  Reference of array variable containing
                                ##  directories of Debian archives
    declare -i i=0

    ##  Clear the contents of temporary Packages detail list and
    ##  dpkg-scanpackages error log.
    > "${__TMP_PKG_DETAIL}"
    > "${__LOG_DPKG_SCANPKG_MESSAGES}"
    > "${__LOG_SCANNED_DIRS}"

    > "${__TMP_PRELIM_DEB_LIST}"
    > "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}"

    echo "Please wait. Scanning..."
    echo
    for (( i = 0 ; i < ${#deb_repos[@]} ; i++ )) ; do
        echo "${deb_repos[i]}"
        echo "$( command date +%F_%T ) :: START SCANNING DIRECTORY ${deb_repos[i]}" >> "${__LOG_DPKG_SCANPKG_MESSAGES}"
        command dpkg-scanpackages "${deb_repos[i]}" /dev/null >> "${__TMP_PKG_DETAIL}" 2>> "${__LOG_DPKG_SCANPKG_MESSAGES}"
        echo "${deb_repos[i]}" >> "${__LOG_SCANNED_DIRS}"
    done

    command egrep '^Filename:[[:space:]]+.*\.deb' "${__TMP_PKG_DETAIL}" \
        | command sed -r 's,^Filename:[[:space:]]+,,;s,[[:space:]]+$,,' \
        > "${__TMP_PRELIM_DEB_LIST}"

    command awk -F'/' ' { __PKG_PATH[$NF]=$0 ; __PKG_PATH_COUNT[$NF]+=1 } \
        END { \
            for ( __W in __PKG_PATH ) { \
                printf "%s\n" , __PKG_PATH[__W] ; \
                if ( __PKG_PATH_COUNT[__W] > 1 ) \
                    printf "Package \"%s\" appears at %d locations, choosing the last.\n" , __W , __PKG_PATH_COUNT[__W] > "/dev/stderr" \
            } \
        }' "${__TMP_PRELIM_DEB_LIST}" > "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}"
    echo
    echo "Scan complete."
    echo
}

function _Prepare_Archivable_Disk_Repository(){
    ##  Input:  No input as args but requires the __TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST file,
    ##          __DIR_BASE and __LABEL_CODENAME directories.
    ##  Output: Creates a directory tree and copies the .deb files listed in
    ##          __TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST file to the binary-i386/ directory
    ##          in the root of archivable structure.

    declare tmp_word=""

    if [[ ! -e "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" ]] ; then
        _Msg_Err "This function must be preceded by _Scan_Packages_Temp() function."
        return 1
    fi

    if [[ -z "${__DIR_BASE}" ]] ; then
        _Msg_Err "Use option -D to specify the path of the base directory to create the archive structure. See \`${__SCRIPT_NAME} -h'."
        return 1
    fi

    if [[ -z "${__LABEL_CODENAME}" ]] ; then
        _Msg_Err "Use option -l to specify the identification of the Ubuntu version you are using. See \`${__SCRIPT_NAME} -h'."
        return 1
    fi

    echo
    echo "Please make sure that \"${__DIR_BASE}\""
    echo "is cleared of the stuffs you don't need. Any of the previously created"
    echo "files/directories in there (except for a few) will not be removed or modified."
    echo "Any excess of the packages, for new repositories added which are not in this"
    echo "structure will be copied. The only files that will be modified are 'Packages'"
    echo "files and its compressed forms (required by apt)."
    read -n1 -p"Do you want to proceed (copying packages and generating 'Packages' file)? ( y/n ; default n ) : "
    echo
    if [[ "${REPLY}" != @(Y|y) ]] ; then
        return 1
    fi

    if [[ ! -d "${__DIR_BASE}" ]] ; then
        if ! command mkdir -p "${__DIR_BASE}"  ; then
            _Msg_Err "Could not create \"${__DIR_BASE}\" directory."
            return 1
        else
            echo "Created \"${__DIR_BASE}\" directory."
        fi
    fi

    for tmp_word in \
    "${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}" \
    "${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}" \
    "${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_SOURCE_DIR}" ; do
        if test ! -d "${tmp_word}" ; then
            if command mkdir -p "${tmp_word}" ; then
                echo "Created \"${tmp_word}\" directory."
            else
                _Msg_Err "Could not create \"${REPLY}\" directory."
                return 1
            fi
        fi
    done

    ##  The README.info has to be placed in the root of the ISO image.
    __DEFAULT_README="${__DIR_BASE}/README.info"
    _Write_Default_Readme

    echo
    echo "Copying the essential .deb files to '${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}/'"
    ## rsync --stats -h --progress --times --perms --group --owner --ignore-existing --verbose --files-from="${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" "${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}/"

    while read -r ; do
        command cp --preserve=all --no-clobber --verbose -t "${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}/" "${REPLY}"
    done < "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" && echo "Completed copying." || {
        _Msg_Err "Encountered some error."
        return 1
    }

    ##  Now begin creating the "Packages" file for `apt':
    ##  THE SCAN WILL BE DONE FROM THE LEVEL OF ROOT FOR THE ISO IMAGE:
    ## cd "${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/"  ##  choosing instead to scan from the ISO root
    cd "${__DIR_BASE}"
    echo "$( command date +%F_%T ) :: START SCANNING ARCHIVING BINARY DIRECTORY ${deb_repos[i]}" >> "${__LOG_DPKG_SCANPKG_MESSAGES}"
    echo
    echo "Running \`dpkg-scanpackages' and generating 'Packages' file..."
    # command dpkg-scanpackages "${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}" /dev/null > "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}" 
    command dpkg-scanpackages "${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}" /dev/null > "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}" 
    command gzip -c "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}" > "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}.gz"
    command xz --suffix=.xz -kfz "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}"

    if [[ -e "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}".gz && -e "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}".xz ]] ; then
        command rm "${__PACKAGE_DETAIL_FILE}"
    fi
    cd "${__SCRIPT_INITIAL_WDIR}"
}


if [[ ${#} -eq 0 ]] ; then
    echo "See \`${__SCRIPT_NAME} -h'" >&2
    exit 1
fi

declare __SCRIPT_OPTS=""
##  If the option string starts with a colon (:), silent error reporting is used.

##  The `getopts` builtin returns with value greater than zero on encountering
##  end of option and assumes completion of option parsing which might not
##  always be the case. The end of option is any invalid option or free operand.
##  This can be explicitly marked with -- at the command line.
##  Together with reading flag-type options and argument-type options with their
##  arguments, getopts also shifts the positional parameters; the read options
##  and arguments are popped out until end of options. The OPTIND which holds
##  the index of next command line parameters, is initialized to 1 at each new
##  invocation of the script, incremented for each call of `getopts`, but not
##  reset and has to be reset manually (if required: re-processing of positional
##  parameters). On encountering end of option, OPTIND is set to the position of
##  the first non-option parameter, and __SCRIPT_OPTS is set to ?.
while getopts ":D:l:h" __SCRIPT_OPTS ; do
    case "${__SCRIPT_OPTS}" in
        D)
            if [[ "${OPTARG}" == "-" ]] ; then
                __DIR_BASE="${__PATH_DEFAULT_BASENAME%/}"   ##  also remove any trailing slash
            else
                __DIR_BASE="${OPTARG}"      ##  also remove any trailing slash
            fi
            ;;
        l)
            __LABEL_CODENAME="${OPTARG}"
            if [[ ! "${__LABEL_CODENAME}" =~ ^[^/]+$ ]] ; then
                _Msg_Err "Error. The label specified with -l must not have a path separator character."
                exit 1
            fi
            ;;
        h)  _Show_Help ; exit 0 ;;
    esac

    ##  Silent error reporting: For "invalid option" errors, the __SCRIPT_OPTS
    ##  is set to a question mark (?). For "argument to option not found"
    ##  errors, the __SCRIPT_OPTS is set to a colon (:). In both error types,
    ##  the option character is placed in OPTARG shell variable. [ This is
    ##  not properly documented in bash man-page Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS. ]
    if [[ "${__SCRIPT_OPTS}" == "?" ]] ; then
        echo "Option \"-${OPTARG}\" is not recognised."
        echo "Try \`${0##*/} -h' for help." >&2
        exit ${__ERR_GENERAL}
    fi
    if [[ "${__SCRIPT_OPTS}" == ":" ]] ; then
        echo "Option -${OPTARG} requires an argument."
        echo "Try \`${0##*/} -h' for help." >&2
        exit ${__ERR_GENERAL}
    fi
done

##  Manual shifting of command line parameters might not be necessary with
##  `getopts` as the builtin does that itself. 
shift $(( ${OPTIND} - 1 ))
##  Remember to reset OPTIND before processing next set of positional
##  parameters.
# OPTIND=1

##  Now, all that remains in $@ must be non-option arguments. (Remember that
##  getopts will stop looking for more option on first non-option argument
##  that it encounters.

##  The first of the non-option argument must be the script ACTION specification
##  and remaining all directories (repositories) of the Debian packages of
##  applications and their dependencies.

##  Getting the ACTION:
__SCRIPT_ACTION="${1}"
shift || {
    _Msg_Err "Script action not specified. This must be the first non-option argument. See \`${__SCRIPT_NAME} -h'."
    exit 1
}

##  Assign the rest as repository directories:
__DIR_REPOSITORY=( "$@" )

##  Reaching here, the contents of __SCRIPT_ACTION and __DIR_REPOSITORY are
##  a must:
case "${__SCRIPT_ACTION}" in
    prepare) ;;
    list) ;;
    *)
        _Msg_Err "Error. The first non-option argument must specify an action. \"${__SCRIPT_ACTION}\" is not a valid action."
        exit 1
        ;;
esac

if [[ ! -d "${__DIR_TMP}" ]] ; then
    mkdir "${__DIR_TMP}"
fi

##  Check the validity of __DIR_REPOSITORY
if [[ ${#__DIR_REPOSITORY[@]} -eq 0 ]] ; then
    _Msg_Err "Error. A repository directory containing the Debian packages meant to archive must be specified."
    exit 1
else
    for (( __INDEX = 0 ; __INDEX < ${#__DIR_REPOSITORY[@]} ; __INDEX++ )) ; do
        if [[ ! -d "${__DIR_REPOSITORY[${__INDEX}]}" ]] ; then
            _Msg_Err "Directory \"${__DIR_REPOSITORY[${__INDEX}]}\" does not exist. (All options must preceed the non-option operands.)."
            exit 1
        fi
    done
fi

##  Codes to serve the commands:
case "${__SCRIPT_ACTION}" in
    list)
        if [[ -e "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" ]] ; then
            echo "A list from a previous scan exists. The following directories were scanned:"
            command cat "${__LOG_SCANNED_DIRS}"
            echo
            echo "Select n to see the previous list."
            read -n1 -p"Perform a new scan ( y/n ; default n ): "
            echo
            if [[ "${REPLY}" == @(Y|y) ]] ; then
                _Scan_Packages_Temp __DIR_REPOSITORY
                echo "The following packages should be sufficient to archive:"
                command cat "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}"
                echo
                echo "Free space required: $( echo "scale=6; $( command cat "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" | command xargs -I{} du -b {} | command sed -r 's,^([[:digit:]]+)[[:space:]]+.*,\1,' | command paste -sd+ | command bc ) / 1024 ^ 3" | command bc ) GiB"
            else
                echo "The following packages should be sufficient to archive:"
                command cat "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}"
                echo
                echo "Free space required: $( echo "scale=6; $( command cat "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" | command xargs -I{} du -b {} | command sed -r 's,^([[:digit:]]+)[[:space:]]+.*,\1,' | command paste -sd+ | command bc ) / 1024 ^ 3" | command bc ) GiB"
            fi
            echo
        fi
        ;;
    prepare)
        if [[ -z "${__DIR_BASE}" ]] ; then
            _Msg_Err "Use option -D to specify the path of the base directory to create the archive structure. See \`${__SCRIPT_NAME} -h'."
            exit 1
        fi

        if [[ -z "${__LABEL_CODENAME}" ]] ; then
            _Msg_Err "Use option -l to specify the identification of the Ubuntu version you are using. See \`${__SCRIPT_NAME} -h'."
            exit 1
        fi

        if [[ -e "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" ]] ; then
            echo "A list from a previous scan exists. The following directories were scanned:"
            command cat "${__LOG_SCANNED_DIRS}"
            echo
            echo "Select Y if you've adding more scan directories at the command line. (If"
            echo "it's an entirely new list you SHOULD clear the contents of the"
            echo "\"${__DIR_BASE}/${__LABEL_CODENAME}/${__LABEL_BINARY_DIR}/\" directory;"
            echo "in that case select E, clear the directory and start again.)"
            echo
            read -n1 -p"Perform a new scan ( y/n/e/* ; default e ; E and any other exits ): "
            echo
            if [[ "${REPLY}" == @(Y|y) ]] ; then
                _Scan_Packages_Temp __DIR_REPOSITORY
                # echo "The following is the list of sufficient packages to archive:"
                # command cat "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}"
            elif [[ "${REPLY}" == @(N|n) ]] ; then
                true    ##  no-op
            else
                exit 0
            fi
        else
            _Scan_Packages_Temp __DIR_REPOSITORY
        fi
        echo
        echo "Total size of .deb packages to copy: $( echo "scale=6; $( command cat "${__TMP_SUFFICIENT_DEB_LIST}" | command xargs -I{} du -b {} | command sed -r 's,^([[:digit:]]+)[[:space:]]+.*,\1,' | command paste -sd+ | command bc ) / 1024 ^ 3" | command bc ) GiB."
        echo "Make sure you have this amount of disk space available."
        echo
        _Prepare_Archivable_Disk_Repository
        ;;
esac
## End of script codes.

The steps to create an ISO file of the archive using xfburn:

  • Start the xfburn application.
  • Select Files -> New Data Composition
  • Click Add button, browse to the BASE_DIRECTORY and select the repository directory, Packages.gz, Packages.xz, and README.info, and then at the bottom of the dialog, click on Add button.
  • At the bottom of the window, the appropriate size and type of disk CD/DVD will be automatically selected. I've manually specified a 4.3GB DVD.
  • Click on Proceed to Burn, the Burn Composition dialogue box will appear. In the options, check on Only create ISO, and then click on Burn Composition button.

Example - Creating a repository CD/DVD with boot-repair and few other applications:

cd /tmp ; mkdir download_liveCD_essential_packages
cd download_liveCD_essential_packages
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:yannubuntu/boot-repair && sudo apt update
apt-get -y --print-uris install boot-repair clamav curl dos2unix extundelete fdupes foremost gnome-disk-utility gsmartcontrol iftop iotop konsole linkchecker links2 lynx nmap p7zip samba synaptic traceroute tree unrar vim whois | grep -o '\'http.*\' | tr "\'" " " >> packages_download.list
wget -i packages_download.list -c
wget -i packages_download.list -c  ## confirm all downloads
bash ~/deb_cache_pkg_to_repository_image_v0.1.sh -D - -l lunar prepare /tmp/download_liveCD_essential_packages/  ## Assuming the script is in home directory
cd /tmp/prepare_apt_archive_for_ISO/
ls ## These are the files and directories you need to copy to the root of your .iso file. Next, use Xfburn or other apps to create the .iso file

Now, you can copy the required contents to the root of the ISO directory using GUI applications like xfburn (recommended) or by using the following command:

genisoimage -allow-leading-dots -allow-lowercase -allow-multidot -iso-level 4 -max-iso9660-filenames -o /tmp/genisoimage__Ubuntu23.04_repo.iso -V "Ubuntu23.04_Repo" -R -uid 1000 -no-iso-translate /tmp/prepare_apt_archive_for_ISO/

or simply,

genisoimage -o /tmp/genisoimage__Ubuntu23.04_repo.iso -V "Ubuntu23.04_Repo" -R /tmp/prepare_apt_archive_for_ISO/

(Using Rock Ridge format in genisoimage. These both commands seem to be working to create CD image, however for larger files, not accommodated in a CD image, you must also use tools like xfburn.)


Links:

-1

Check out OpenRepo (https://github.com/openkilt/openrepo)

This open source project runs as a web server. You can upload packages to it and it will host it on your LAN for other servers to upgrade from.

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