An easier solution (compared to compiling libmtp yourself) would be to install
go-mtpfs. It includes the latest version of libmtp, and I can verify it works with my GS3 running CM 10. You can also install the
go-mtpfs-unity package, which comes with a nice launcher icon and functionality.
To install, run
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/unstable
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install go-mtpfs-unity
Full directions can be found here: http://www.webupd8.org/2012/12/how-to-mount-android-40-ubuntu-go-mtpfs.html
The easiest solution of all would be to use AirDroid, free on the Play Store. You just install the app on your phone, start it, and point any desktop web browser to the address it gives you. From there you can access the file system, upload/download photos and videos, even send SMS messages.
I think the current version (in the Play Store) requires the phone and computer to be on the same WiFi network, but there's a v2 beta right now where this isn't necessary.