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Why does dpkg -p packageName for some package (example adduser, dash) display info thereof, but for other package like nodejs, git, firefox display dpkg-query: package name is not available?

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The manual explains it ;-) man dpkg-query:

-p, --print-avail [package-name...]
       Display details about packages, as found in
       /var/lib/dpkg/available.  If no package-name is specified, it will
       display all package entries in the available database (since dpkg
       1.19.1).  When multiple package-name are listed, the requested
       available entries are separated by an empty line, with the same
       order as specified on the argument list.

       Users of APT-based frontends should use `apt show package-name`
       instead as the available file is only kept up-to-date when using
       dselect.

The last sentence explains it: use apt show package-name

Example:

$ apt show firefox
Package: firefox
Version: 87.0+build3-0ubuntu4
Priority: optional
Section: web
Origin: Ubuntu

$ apt show git
Package: git
Version: 1:2.30.2-1ubuntu1
Priority: optional
Section: vcs
Origin: Ubuntu

etc.

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