Disks are attached or "mounted" to folders in the linux filesystem. At boot time, the boot disk and grub find and mount the root partition for you.
Subsequent disks (like your 2TB) are then mounted to empty subfolders of root ("/"). But there are a number of prerequisites:
- Your 2TB disk must be connected to a controller; IDE,SATA,SAS at boot time, or a USB port (I don't recommend USB if this is going to be a permanent addition).
- You need to know the actual device path of your connected disk. This can be determined by
ls -l /dev/disk/by-id/. This will display a symbolic link to the actual device "/dev/sd.....something". Make absolutely certain you have the correct one!
- You need to have a mountable partition on the disk. If it is a brand new disk, you can partition the entire device with
sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/disk/by-id/<my-2TB-drive>. Again, make certain you have the correct disk! This command will format the entire disk.
- You need a mount point. This is just a folder somewhere in your filesystem. A top level one can be created with
sudo mkdir /my_programs
- You need to actually mount the new volume. This can be done manually by
sudo mount /dev/disk/by-id/<my-2TB-drive> /my_programs
- You'll need to grant filesystem permissions to the newly mount volume. "chown" and "chmod" are the linux commands used for assigning ownership and access modes. If you wanted to use the volume exclusively for a given login, say "mimi", this could be done by
sudo chown mimi:mimi /my_programs/.
Once you are satisfied with naming and location of everything, you can automate mounting of your 2TB volume by adding an entry to the /etc/fstab file to have it mount automatically at boot time. A typical ext4 mount entry looks like:
UUID=1f759a8d-7150-41be-99d3-bfc99bfd0306 /my_programs ext4 defaults 0 1
A UUID is used to make certain we always mount the exact drive we intend. Since devices can move around, /dev/sdb might not always be /dev/sdb.
You find your devices UUID by
ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid
On Ubuntu Desktop (as opposed to server), much of the above will be done automatically (or with some prompting) if you attach your disk via USB. But the mount point will change dynamically and USB is not an ideal interface for "big data". Still, many will find it satisfactory and MUCH, MUCH simpler.
Good luck, Mimi. And welcome to Linux!