You can't put folders in launcher in easy way, so how you access folders or files in fast and easy way?
To add a directory to our bookmarks for quick access we open the directory with the file browser Nautilus and select Bookmarks -> Add Bookmark from the panel menu.
After that we will find this directory in the list of bookmarked directories in the left side panel, and also in the launcher right-click quicklist.
One fast way is to use Super+F. That will give you your bookmarked folders first, and then folders based on usage. How recent and how frequently you use them.
So my recommendation is that you only bookmark the very important folders, and let the system provide you with folders that you use frequently anyway. If you have too many Nautilus bookmarks, the Quicklist menu might become cumbersome to use. The Files lens is better suited for those situations.
In Nautilus, you can also use HUD to access bookmarks since they're listed in the menu. Tap Alt and start typing its name.
In 12.04, right click the launcher icon for the file manager Nautilus if it is on your launcher. Here, it should have a list of folders...I can't tell you off the top of my head what the defaults are. If you would like to add more items to this Quicklist, simply bookmark any folder that you want using the bookmark command in Nautilus. It will update as you add new ones.
One of the quickest ways is to install Gnome-Do, just from the software center. It is a small pop-up launcher, which interpretes what you type (similar as unity).
However, unlike unity, typing the name of a folder and hitting enter brings you directly to that folder. So in my case: hitting space+shift, typing folder name, hitting enter. Can you do quicker? :-)