I would like to learn some useful keyboard shortcuts. I have become a ninja of keyboard shortcuts in Windows.
Any must-have tips for Ubuntu?
Feel free to include Ubuntu defaults or custom ones you have found useful!
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You can set up whatever keyboard shortcuts you want through System -> Preferences -> Keyboard Shortcuts. This will also tell you the current shortcuts.
Personally, I activate Ctrl+Alt+Backspace to restart the x server, use Ctrl+Alt+T to open a terminal, Ctrl+Alt+X as the
xkill command so I can click on non-responding window to kill it and Ctrl+Alt+Delete to open the system monitor (a la Windows) instead of bringing up the shutdown prompt.
There is also a whole load of keyboard shortcuts set by compiz, which can be
compizconfig-settings-manager1 (installable from repositories).
I find keyboard shortcuts to be a personal preference and we are lucky that Linux is so customisable as to allow whatever configuration we want.
There's a fairly substantial list on the Ubuntu community wiki.
When I found out about Alt + Mouse 1 on an open Window. I went nuts moving windows is easy now.
I also use Ctrl + Alt + (Left|Right) for switching workspaces.
Lastly I find myself using Super + Space which is the default binding for Gnome Do which I love.
Alt + F2 is very handy for starting programs, it has auto-completion and prevents you from clicking though the menus.
In Nautilus, you can have an extra pane by pressing
F3. You get a Norton Commander kind of look.
(I learned this here: Add options to "Move to" (when you right click on a file).)
ALT + F1 : launch applications menu, probably the most used keyword combination in my laptop.
ALT + Home : Jump to home folder.
ALT + Enter : Show file/folder properties.
ALT + F2 : Launch "run application" dialog box.
ALT + F4 : Close Window.
ALT + Left/Right : Go back/forward while navigation directories in nautilus.
ALT + Up/Down : Go up/down while navigating directories in nautilus.
ALT + Tab : Browse through windows.
Shift + Del : Permanently delete files, no backing up in trash folder.
F2 : Rename File/Folder.
F3 : Enable split view in nautilus.
F8 : Show/hide nautilus menubar.
F9 : Toggle nautilus side-pane.
Super + Tab : "Shift switcher", need to enable it in CCSM.
Super + M : Inverts all the colors.
Super + A or W : Arrange windows in a nice panel like appearance(Need Compiz).
CTRL + L : View/Edit full location path.
CTRL + A : Select all.
CTRL + N : New window.
CTRL + Shift + N : New folder.
CTRL + H : Show/hide hidden files.
CTRL + ALT + L : Lock Screen.
If your system has become complete unresponsive to where even hitting CTRL+ALT+F1 doesn't give you a terminal, it is possible to still gracefully stop your machine and reboot.
ALT+SysReq+r : Raw keyboard mode
ALT+SysReq+s : Sync the disk
ALT+SysReq+e : Terminate all processes
ALT+SysReq+i : Kill remaining process
ALT+SysReq+u : Remount all filesystems as read only
ALT+SysReq+b : Reboot
(Another way to kill all processes: ALT+SysReq+k)
Once you get Compiz Fusion installed there are a ton of nifty keyboard shortcuts. It's like Exposé on Mac OS X, but even more powerful. I have shortcuts set up to flip between desktops, zoom out/show all windows, show the desktop, launch the console, etc. If you've never used Compiz check it out:
Another few helpful shortcuts while in terminal:
Ctrl+Arrow Left: Move to the start of the previous string (for long commands).
Ctrl+Arrow Right: Move to the next non-alphabet character (eg, '/', '.', '_', '-', etc).
Arrow Up or Arrow Down: Scroll through history of commands.
Some shortcuts relating to the mouse:
These might not be a shortcuts but they do involve using the keyboard: turn on Mouse Keys in Keyboard Preferences and by pressing Fn + [keys that have the same colour as the "Fn" label] you can control the pointer and simulate clicks and click-holds. Keynav is a program in the repositories that is used to control the pointer by using the keyboard to divide a window in half continually. Thus one can click a link with no more than 10 key presses (in the rare case that Vimium/Pentadactyl/Vimperator can't do the job). Long winded it is, but I haven't touched a mouse or trackpad in ages!
I like using Ctrl + arrow keys to switch workspaces. I do it a lot. It's fun. I use Ctrl + Alt + arrow keys to move windows.
Super-T to open the terminal.
I took a note from the guy above, and made an xkill shortcut--I use Ctrl + Alt + X.
Alt + Tab is handy as always, but less so, as I just put things on different desktops.
As noted above, using compiz config is wise.
Anyway, there's a reason you're able to customize them all. Get a feel for what you need to do, and how you want to do it. Come on, man, you're using Ubuntu. Go nuts.