I just made a fresh install of Ubuntu 20.04 on my dual boot. It was working well until all desktop icons in the application menu disappeared. The apps are still usable via command line or favourites, but gnome menu doesn't show anything. Searching for a specific app doesn't work either. Also, when I try to switch from All to frequent, the menu crashes and desktop refreshes itself. I looked around and found someone experienced a similar thing on Arch Linux with gnome, and a few things like reinstalling gnome-core or changing the format settings to a different country, but none solved it.
Edit: Here is a list of all apt files I have, since I was installing in batches I don't know exactly when the menu first broke: