I am trying to create a live Ubuntu 18.04 USB drive (16 GB) with persistent storage (1 GB) using Rufus 3.9.1624. I ran Rufus with the following settings. However, upon booting up the USB drive, I get the following screen, showing BusyBox and a initramfs prompt. I even tried using a different USB but got the same problem. But if I disable persistent storage, then it works (I also tried using a lower amount of persistent storage i.e. 100 MB). Is there anything else that needs to be configured to get it to work with persistent storage?
If you perform a quick search, you will find numerous posts with the error:
mount: mounting /cow on /root failed: Invalid argument overlay mount failed
This is due to the fact that Ubuntu 18.04 has a MAJOR BUG that prevents it from mounting a persistent partition residing on the same drive, and this bug was only fixed in Ubuntu 19.10. So you must either:
- Use Ubuntu 19.10 if you want to add peristence in Rufus, or
- Disable persistence altogether
Next time, please try to perform a search for the error message you get, as you should have found existing questions with the answer you seek.
Persistent Partitions 18.04
From 14.04 to 18.04 persistent partitions did not work with Syslinux bootable USB's unless the casper-rw partition was on a seperate drive.
Mkusb, https://help.ubuntu.com/community/mkusb, uses Grub2 for booting and Persistent partitions do work.
It is possible to download and install mkusb to your Live Rufus drive and use it to install Persistent Ubuntu on a second USB. It is also possible to install Persistent Ubuntu to the Live Rufus drive it was booted from. Can a Persistent Ubuntu install be made to the pendrive it was booted from?
Change Live USB to Persistent USB
It is also possible to change a Rufus Live USB to a Persistent USB using a casper-rw file: Can I convert a live Ubuntu USB to one with persistent memory? Size is limited to 4GB (or 8GB adding a home-rw file).