4

I used the free -h command to show the available RAM in the live image of Lubuntu loaded into RAM .

If I created it by the command: dd if=lubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=512k, then I get my actual total ram.

But if I created the live-usb using MKusb, I get about 1gb less of ram ... I'm using Mkusb to make a persistent live usb.

  • I'm assuming by "ram" you mean disk usage. How are you measuring the size, different block-sizes will give you different disk usage; are you having a problem or is this just curiosity? mkusb does change the image (and uses bs=4096), with isohybrid at least, when it writes it, so you'd expect it to be a bit different. – pbhj Mar 7 at 17:09
  • RAM isn't found on a USB thumb-drive so I'm just confused. I switched to using mkusb because I found it more reliably puts the image on my thumb-drives, plus is safer (than dd) however your dd command as shown will not create a persistent image so the results will of course be different to mkusb if it's creating a persistent image. Your question doesn't make sense sorry. – guiverc Mar 7 at 21:31
  • 1
    What version of Ubuntu are you using? What version of mkusb? A Live, (not Persistent), mkusb install is a clone like dd and should use the same RAM. Sudodus should be around here shortly. – C.S.Cameron Mar 8 at 3:26
  • I understand that "free" measures RAM and swap usage. – C.S.Cameron Mar 8 at 3:37
  • @pbhj Sorry, i wasn't clear :By avaliable ram i meant the avaliable ram on the device im plugin the live-usb. I'm mesuring it by "free -h", wich returns my avaliable ram at the moment. Yes, i'm just curious :When i create a non-persistent live-usb with the dd comand, the image is loaded fully into ram costing an amount of ram required by the image. Manjaro requires more,lubuntu less. But the same image will costs more ram to be loaded (about 1,5 gb,if lubuntu 19.04) when on a persistent live-usb,created by mkusb,and started by the "live-only" option from the menu booting. – Jhon Baptist Mar 8 at 12:39
4

General description of what is happening

As noted in comments, 19.04 has passed the end of life date, so I think we should test not only that version but also another version (that is still supported).

  • Cloned USB boot drives made with dd, mkusb and any other cloning tool will be identical. If there is a difference, it is not a cloning tool, or there is some write error (maybe due to faulty hardware). The block size selected by dd with bs can change the speed of cloning, but does not change the result of the cloning.

  • According to my experience, Ubuntu live (live-only) systems allocate approximately half of the available RAM to the root file system /

  • A persistent live drive made with mkusb version 12 alias mkusb-dus uses an overlay method, where the size of the partition for persistence decides the size of the root file system.

So when the partition for persistence is

  • greater than half of the RAM, the root file system will increase compared to a live system,

  • smaller than half of the RAM, the root file system will decrease compared to a live system.

The amount of RAM for other purposes (which is free before it is used by the programs, that you start) will depend on how much that is used for the overlay system. The following test results describe what happens in different cases.

Test results

I found no unexpected behaviour when testing Lubuntu 19.04. For that reason I am rather sure that those results can also represent Lubuntu 18.04.x LTS.

I also tested Lubuntu 19.10, which has a modified mechanism in the package casper, and can be expected to behave in a different way. These results should also represent Focal Fossa to be released as Lubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Summary

enter image description here

The main difference is the free memory in case #3 in both versions (19.04 and 19.10), and the reason is that the boot option toram was used in that case. It means that the [whole] image of the iso file is copied to RAM. Otherwise there is no significant difference in the usage of RAM.

Details

  • Target computer A laptop with Intel i5 generation 3 CPU and 4 GB RAM
  • Explanation of the list above:

    • 'cloned live' - a live drive created by cloning from the iso file
    • a persistent live drive made with mkusb (and 67% selected for persistence)

      • 'persistent' - the menu option 'Start Lubuntu - persistent live'
      • 'live toram' - the menu option 'Start Lubuntu - live-only to RAM
      • 'try Lubuntu' - the menu option 'Start Lubuntu' which matches the standard alternative of a cloned drive
    • the remaining part of the list is output from free -h

      • 'total' - total amount of RAM
      • 'used' - RAM used by programs (in this case after boot and opening a terminal window)
      • 'free' - RAM not yet used
      • 'shared' - RAM shared
      • 'buff/cache' - RAM used for buffering (e.g. during writing) which has low priority.
      • 'available' - RAM available for running new programs

Shellscript

The following shellscript was used to collect data from each of the run case.

echo "lsb_release -a ########################################" >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
      lsb_release -a >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
echo "cat /proc/cmdline ##########" >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
      cat /proc/cmdline >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
echo "sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########" >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
      sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
echo "df -h ##########" >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
      df -h >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
echo "free -h ##########" >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt
      free -h >> /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME/result.txt

The following output lists can be used by you, if you want to compare your results with mine in order to discuss differences.

Output for Lubuntu 19.04

lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.04
Release:    19.04
Codename:   disco
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed boot=casper initrd=/casper/initrd quiet splash --- debian-installer/language=sv keyboard-configuration/layoutcode?=se
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT               SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                    1,5G 
sda    iso9660  Lubuntu 19.04 amd64 /cdrom                  14,8G SS3
├─sda1 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.04 amd64                          1,6G 
└─sda2 vfat     Lubuntu 19.04 amd64                          3,7M 
sdb                                                           15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdb1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME    15G 
sr0                                                         1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                           11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                 478,2M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                 478,2M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                 478,2M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                 478,2M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1,9G     0  1,9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           383M  1,4M  382M   1% /run
/dev/sda        1,6G  1,6G     0 100% /cdrom
/dev/loop0      1,5G  1,5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow            1,9G   32M  1,9G   2% /
tmpfs           1,9G  6,3M  1,9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5,0M  4,0K  5,0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           1,9G     0  1,9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           1,9G     0  1,9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs           383M  8,0K  383M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdb1        15G  3,4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3,7Gi       339Mi       2,7Gi        63Mi       742Mi       3,1Gi
Swap:         1,9Gi          0B       1,9Gi
lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.04
Release:    19.04
Codename:   disco
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,gpt4)/casper/vmlinuz file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed boot=casper quiet splash persistent ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT                 SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                      1.5G 
sda                                                           14.6G Extreme
├─sda1 ntfs     usbdata             /media/lubuntu/usbdata     4.2G 
├─sda2                                                           1M 
├─sda3 vfat     usbboot                                        244M 
├─sda4 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.04 amd64 /cdrom                     1.6G 
└─sda5 ext4     casper-rw           /media/lubuntu/casper-rw   8.6G 
sdb                                                             15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdb1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME      15G 
sr0                                                           1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                             11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           383M  1.4M  382M   1% /run
/dev/sda4       1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /cdrom
/dev/loop0      1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow            8.5G   61M  8.0G   1% /
tmpfs           1.9G  6.3M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs           383M  8.0K  383M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdb1        15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
/dev/sda5       8.5G   61M  8.0G   1% /media/lubuntu/casper-rw
/dev/sda1       4.3G   23M  4.3G   1% /media/lubuntu/usbdata
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       344Mi       2.7Gi        31Mi       710Mi       3.1Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi
lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.04
Release:    19.04
Codename:   disco
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,gpt4)/casper/vmlinuz file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed boot=casper quiet splash toram nopersistent ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT                           SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                                1.5G 
sda                                                                     14.6G Extreme
├─sda1 ntfs     usbdata             /media/lubuntu/usbdata               4.2G 
├─sda2                                                                     1M 
├─sda3 vfat     usbboot                                                  244M 
├─sda4 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.04 amd64 /media/lubuntu/Lubuntu 19.04 amd64   1.6G 
└─sda5 ext4     casper-rw           /media/lubuntu/casper-rw             8.6G 
sdb                                                                       15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdb1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME                15G 
sr0                                                                     1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                                       11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                             478.2M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                             478.2M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                             478.2M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                             478.2M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           383M  1.4M  382M   1% /run
/dev/shm        1.7G  1.6G   79M  96% /cdrom
/dev/loop0      1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow            1.9G   26M  1.9G   2% /
tmpfs           1.9G  6.3M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs           383M  8.0K  383M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdb1        15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
/dev/sda5       8.5G   75M  8.0G   1% /media/lubuntu/casper-rw
/dev/sda4       1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /media/lubuntu/Lubuntu 19.04 amd64
/dev/sda1       4.3G   23M  4.3G   1% /media/lubuntu/usbdata
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       344Mi       1.3Gi       1.6Gi       2.1Gi       1.6Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi
lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.04
Release:    19.04
Codename:   disco
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,gpt4)/casper/vmlinuz file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed boot=casper quiet splash ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT                 SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                      1.5G 
sda                                                           14.6G Extreme
├─sda1 ntfs     usbdata             /media/lubuntu/usbdata     4.2G 
├─sda2                                                           1M 
├─sda3 vfat     usbboot                                        244M 
├─sda4 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.04 amd64 /cdrom                     1.6G 
└─sda5 ext4     casper-rw           /media/lubuntu/casper-rw   8.6G 
sdb                                                             15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdb1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME      15G 
sr0                                                           1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                             11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                   478.2M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           383M  1.4M  382M   1% /run
/dev/sda4       1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /cdrom
/dev/loop0      1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow            1.9G   24M  1.9G   2% /
tmpfs           1.9G  6.3M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs           383M  8.0K  383M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdb1        15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
/dev/sda5       8.5G   75M  8.0G   1% /media/lubuntu/casper-rw
/dev/sda1       4.3G   23M  4.3G   1% /media/lubuntu/usbdata
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       344Mi       2.7Gi        54Mi       719Mi       3.1Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi

Output for Lubuntu 19.10

lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.10
Release:    19.10
Codename:   eoan
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed initrd=/casper/initrd quiet splash ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT               SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                    1.5G 
sdb    iso9660  Lubuntu 19.10 amd64                         14.8G SS3
├─sdb1 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.10 amd64 /cdrom                   1.6G 
├─sdb2 vfat     Lubuntu 19.10 amd64                          3.9M 
└─sdb3 ext4     casper-rw           /var/crash              13.2G 
sdc                                                           15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdc1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME    15G 
sr0                                                         1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                           11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem                    Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev                          1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs                         382M  6.2M  376M   2% /run
/dev/sdb1                     1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /cdrom
/dev/loop0                    1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow                          1.9G   17M  1.9G   1% /
/dev/disk/by-label/casper-rw   13G   41M   13G   1% /var/log
tmpfs                         1.9G  6.7M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs                         5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs                         1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs                         1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs                         382M  8.0K  382M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdc1                      15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       337Mi       2.7Gi        50Mi       745Mi       3.1Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi
lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.10
Release:    19.10
Codename:   eoan
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,gpt4)/casper/vmlinuz file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed quiet splash persistent ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT                 SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                      1.5G 
sdb                                                           14.6G Extreme
├─sdb1 ntfs     usbdata             /media/lubuntu/usbdata     4.2G 
├─sdb2                                                           1M 
├─sdb3 vfat     usbboot                                        244M 
├─sdb4 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.10 amd64 /cdrom                     1.6G 
└─sdb5 ext4     casper-rw           /media/lubuntu/casper-rw   8.6G 
sdc                                                             15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdc1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME      15G 
sr0                                                           1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                             11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                   477.3M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                   477.3M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                   477.3M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                   477.3M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           382M  1.4M  381M   1% /run
/dev/sdb4       1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /cdrom
/dev/loop0      1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow            8.5G   60M  8.0G   1% /
tmpfs           1.9G  6.3M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs           382M  8.0K  382M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdc1        15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
/dev/sdb5       8.5G   60M  8.0G   1% /media/lubuntu/casper-rw
/dev/sdb1       4.3G   23M  4.2G   1% /media/lubuntu/usbdata
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       335Mi       2.7Gi        23Mi       733Mi       3.1Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi
lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.10
Release:    19.10
Codename:   eoan
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,gpt4)/casper/vmlinuz file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed quiet splash toram nopersistent ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT                           SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                                1.5G 
sdb                                                                     14.6G Extreme
├─sdb1 ntfs     usbdata             /media/lubuntu/usbdata               4.2G 
├─sdb2                                                                     1M 
├─sdb3 vfat     usbboot                                                  244M 
├─sdb4 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.10 amd64 /media/lubuntu/Lubuntu 19.10 amd64   1.6G 
└─sdb5 ext4     casper-rw           /media/lubuntu/casper-rw             8.6G 
sdc                                                                       15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdc1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME                15G 
sr0                                                                     1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                                       11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                             477.3M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                             477.3M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                             477.3M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                             477.3M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           382M  1.4M  381M   1% /run
/dev/shm        1.7G  1.6G   80M  96% /cdrom
/dev/loop0      1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow            1.9G   25M  1.9G   2% /
tmpfs           1.9G  6.3M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs           1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs           382M  8.0K  382M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdc1        15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
/dev/sdb5       8.5G   74M  8.0G   1% /media/lubuntu/casper-rw
/dev/sdb4       1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /media/lubuntu/Lubuntu 19.10 amd64
/dev/sdb1       4.3G   23M  4.2G   1% /media/lubuntu/usbdata
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       339Mi       1.3Gi       1.6Gi       2.1Gi       1.6Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi
lsb_release -a ########################################
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 19.10
Release:    19.10
Codename:   eoan
cat /proc/cmdline ##########
BOOT_IMAGE=(hd0,gpt4)/casper/vmlinuz file=/cdrom/preseed/lubuntu.seed quiet splash ---
sudo lsblk -o name,fstype,label,mountpoint,size,model ##########
NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL               MOUNTPOINT               SIZE MODEL
loop0  squashfs                     /rofs                    1.5G 
sdb                                                         14.6G Extreme
├─sdb1 ntfs     usbdata             /media/lubuntu/usbdata   4.2G 
├─sdb2                                                         1M 
├─sdb3 vfat     usbboot                                      244M 
├─sdb4 iso9660  Lubuntu 19.10 amd64 /cdrom                   1.6G 
└─sdb5 ext4     casper-rw           /var/crash               8.6G 
sdc                                                           15G Transcend_16GB
└─sdc1 vfat     KEEP_ME             /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME    15G 
sr0                                                         1024M TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SN-208AB
sr1                                                           11M AutoRun_Disk
zram0                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
zram1                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
zram2                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
zram3                               [SWAP]                 477.3M 
df -h ##########
Filesystem                    Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev                          1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs                         382M  6.2M  376M   2% /run
/dev/sdb4                     1.6G  1.6G     0 100% /cdrom
/dev/loop0                    1.5G  1.5G     0 100% /rofs
/cow                          1.9G   17M  1.9G   1% /
/dev/disk/by-label/casper-rw  8.5G   74M  8.0G   1% /var/log
tmpfs                         1.9G  6.3M  1.9G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs                         5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs                         1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs                         1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /tmp
tmpfs                         382M  8.0K  382M   1% /run/user/999
/dev/sdc1                      15G  3.4G   12G  23% /media/lubuntu/KEEP_ME
/dev/sdb1                     4.3G   23M  4.2G   1% /media/lubuntu/usbdata
free -h ##########
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:          3.7Gi       340Mi       2.7Gi        45Mi       741Mi       3.1Gi
Swap:         1.9Gi          0B       1.9Gi
|improve this answer|||||

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.