I guess you have a Windows partition along with your Ubuntu one because I can see many NTFS errors.
Basically something during installation messed up your partitions. You have to fix both, Linux and Windows booting.
For the Linux part, use an USB to live boot.
Then install boot repair if it isn't installed:
sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) universe"
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:yannubuntu/boot-repair
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install boot-repair
The first line enables universe in order to install the (bit down the tree)
And then launch it with:
And just follow the instructions.
I would recommend to fix Windows first. Because fixing Linux probably won't fix Windows booting. For Windows you would have to use a USB created with the Windows Media Creation Tool. Boot to USB and select repair. Repair partition/MBR and check system options.