Was having the same here, on my new i3-8100. I believe it would affect most recent i3 and i5 without a grphical card, as these CPU have their own graphics integrated: HD 620, 630. Maybe it affects lots more people... don't know.
All new distros release was not working because of this for me.
This bug have appears between version 5.3.0 and 5.3.3 inclusively.
I know it because I tested latest 5.2 (5.2.21 and it is not affected).
This bug have been fixed in version 5.3.8.
I know it because I tested versions before 5.3.8, like 5.3.7, and it is affected.
At this stage, if you are affected by this, I would suggest you install latest kernel version (5.4-rc5 now). Maybe you should prefer 5.3.8, as it is the latest and first fixed version that is not a release candidate.
But to be able to fix it, it would be good you see what you do. When booting, press "shift" (to see the Grub menu... not sure this works!). When you are on the line to boot your kernel, press "E" to edit the lines. Go to the line that begins with "linux" go to the end and add "nomodeset". Then press "Ctrl-X" to boot your modified version... your changes will not be saved. Don't think there is a was to save it that way. Except by modifying /etc/default/grub file once you have booted.
Here is how I install a new kernel:
- Create a directory where you will download the kernel packages
- Go to: https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/?C=N;O=D and select your kernel
- Download in your newly created directory: all the deb files that does not contains lowlatency
- open a terminal, cd to the directory, and "sudo apt install ./linux-*"
- your new kernel should have been installed in Grub, reboot, go in advanced options, and select your freshly installed kernel
By example is is my directory:
paul@paul-FQ516AA-A2L-a6648f:~/Téléchargements/5.4-rc5$ ls -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 10900808 nov 2 13:37 linux-headers-5.4.0-050400rc5_5.4.0-050400rc5.201910271430_all.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 1184096 nov 2 13:37 linux-headers-5.4.0-050400rc5-generic_5.4.0-050400rc5.201910271430_amd64.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 8764272 nov 2 13:37 linux-image-unsigned-5.4.0-050400rc5-generic_5.4.0-050400rc5.201910271430_amd64.deb
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 51219944 nov 2 13:38 linux-modules-5.4.0-050400rc5-generic_5.4.0-050400rc5.201910271430_amd64.deb