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After connecting a new external 5TB hard drive and formatting it as ext4 with parted and mkfs with the procedure below, I then mounted the drive, copied files onto it, unmounted the drive and restarted its host computer (running Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS). Upon mounting the drive again, the files were no longer on the drive. What am I doing wrong?

  1. Got drive information using lshw:

    # sudo lshw -C disk
    *-disk
       description: ATA Disk
       product: ST2000LM015-2E81
       vendor: Seagate
       physical id: 0.0.0
       bus info: scsi@2:0.0.0
       logical name: /dev/sda
       version: SDM1
       serial: ZDZ5H230
       size: 1863GiB (2TB)
       capabilities: gpt-1.00 partitioned partitioned:gpt
       configuration: ansiversion=5 guid=2f8a9ef2-85cf-49fe-8cf6- 
       04d7caae1a08 logicalsectorsize=512 sectorsize=4096
    *-disk
       description: SCSI Disk
       product: Portable
       vendor: Seagate
       physical id: 0.0.0
       bus info: scsi@3:0.0.0
       logical name: /dev/sdb
       version: 9300
       serial: NAA5C9V7
       size: 4657GiB (5TB)
       capabilities: gpt-1.00 partitioned partitioned:gpt
       configuration: ansiversion=6 guid=bea19262-56ed-43c1-a4cd- 
       62bca45eeb62 logicalsectorsize=512 sectorsize=4096
    
  2. Implemented ext4 file system using parted:

    # sudo parted /dev/sdb
    
    GNU Parted 3.2
    Using /dev/sdb
    Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
    (parted) mklabel gpt
    Warning: The existing disk label on /dev/sdb will be destroyed and all data on this disk will be lost. Do you want to continue?
    Yes/No? Yes
    (parted) unit TB
    (parted) mkpart
    Partition name?  []? 5tb
    File system type?  [ext2]? ext4
    Start? 0
    End? 5
    (parted) print
    Model: Seagate Portable (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sdb: 5.00TB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
    Partition Table: gpt
    Disk Flags:
    Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name  Flags
     1      0.00TB  5.00TB  5.00TB  ext4         5tb
    
    (parted) quit
    Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.
    
  3. Make or Build a Linux File System (use mkfs)

    # sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb1
    mke2fs 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018)
    /dev/sdb1 alignment is offset by 512 bytes.
    This may result in very poor performance, (re)-partitioning suggested.
    Creating filesystem with 1220933433 4k blocks and 152616960 inodes
    Filesystem UUID: e29ea500-1588-4128-9e12-b2f62891b318
    Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968,
        102400000, 214990848, 512000000, 550731776, 644972544
    
    Allocating group tables: done
    Writing inode tables: done
    Creating journal (262144 blocks): done
    Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
    
  4. Manually mounted/unmount the Hard Drive using mount:

    Create a mount point:
    # sudo mkdir /media/5tb
    Manually mount the drive (not automatic at boot)
    # sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /media/5tb
    Unmount the drive
    # sudo umount /media/5tb
    

EXTENDED Sep 11, 2019:

Upon reboot, it appears the drives are "reversed" (ie the 5TB drive is now /dev/sda and the 2TB drive is now /dev/sdb):

root@nuc3:/media/5tb# sudo lshw -C disk
  *-disk
       description: SCSI Disk
       product: Portable
       vendor: Seagate
       physical id: 0.0.0
       bus info: scsi@0:0.0.0
       logical name: /dev/sda
       version: 9300
       serial: NAA5C9V7
       size: 4657GiB (5TB)
       capabilities: gpt-1.00 partitioned partitioned:gpt
       configuration: ansiversion=6 guid=657182bf-8953-4001-b0d0-4b81832b17e6 logicalsectorsize=512 sectorsize=4096
  *-disk
       description: ATA Disk
       product: ST2000LM015-2E81
       vendor: Seagate
       physical id: 0.0.0
       bus info: scsi@3:0.0.0
       logical name: /dev/sdb
       version: SDM1
       serial: ZDZ5H230
       size: 1863GiB (2TB)
       capabilities: gpt-1.00 partitioned partitioned:gpt
       configuration: ansiversion=5 guid=2f8a9ef2-85cf-49fe-8cf6-04d7caae1a08 logicalsectorsize=512 sectorsize=4096

@jos, I applied the fdisk to both drives:

# sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda
Disk /dev/sda: 4.6 TiB, 5000981077504 bytes, 9767541167 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: 657182BF-8953-4001-B0D0-4B81832B17E6

Device     Start        End    Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sda1  65535 9767533004 9767467470  4.6T Linux filesystem

Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.
# sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb
Disk /dev/sdb: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: gpt
Disk identifier: 2F8A9EF2-85CF-49FE-8CF6-04D7CAAE1A08

Device       Start        End    Sectors  Size Type
/dev/sdb1     2048    1050623    1048576  512M EFI System
/dev/sdb2  1050624 3907026943 3905976320  1.8T Linux filesystem
  • See answers to this question – user68186 Sep 10 at 22:39
  • Please add the output of sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb to your question. How is the drive connected to the computer? Is the drive in an enclosure? – mook765 Sep 11 at 1:13
  • The 5TB drive is an external USB drive connected with a USB cable to an Intel NUC that has an internal 2TB drive. – user1421347 Sep 11 at 14:01
  • Upon reboot, it appears the drives are "reversed" (ie the 5TB drive is now /dev/sda and the 2TB drive is now /dev/sdb): – user1421347 Sep 11 at 14:05
  • @jos, my modified post shows the details but your suggested sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda command informs that "Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary." – user1421347 Sep 11 at 14:15

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