New to linux and ubuntu. I have shared my laptop info. Boot up time is sooooo slowwwww. Even lauch of firefox takes long time.

Can anyone help me figure out how to optimize my system?

Using Lubuntu (Ubuntu Version)


$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS
Release:    18.04
Codename:   bionic


$ sudo lshw -short
H/W path         Device     Class          Description
                            system         Aspire A515-51G (0000000000000000)
/0                          bus            Charmander_KL
/0/0                        memory         128KiB BIOS
/0/4                        processor      Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-8250U CPU @ 1.60
/0/4/5                      memory         256KiB L1 cache
/0/4/6                      memory         1MiB L2 cache
/0/4/7                      memory         6MiB L3 cache
/0/d                        memory         4GiB System Memory
/0/d/0                      memory         4GiB SODIMM DDR4 Synchronous Unbuffer
/0/d/1                      memory         [empty]
/0/100                      bridge         Xeon E3-1200 v6/7th Gen Core Processo
/0/100/2                    display        UHD Graphics 620
/0/100/14                   bus            Sunrise Point-LP USB 3.0 xHCI Control
/0/100/14/0      usb1       bus            xHCI Host Controller
/0/100/14/0/5               communication  Bluetooth wireless interface
/0/100/14/0/7               multimedia     HD WebCam
/0/100/14/1      usb2       bus            xHCI Host Controller
/0/100/15                   generic        Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Contro
/0/100/15.1                 generic        Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Contro
/0/100/16                   communication  Sunrise Point-LP CSME HECI #1
/0/100/17                   storage        Sunrise Point-LP SATA Controller [AHC
/0/100/1c                   bridge         Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Por
/0/100/1c/0                 display        GP108M [GeForce MX150]
/0/100/1c.4                 bridge         Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Por
/0/100/1c.4/0               generic        RTL8411B PCI Express Card Reader
/0/100/1c.4/0.1  enp2s0f1   network        RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit
/0/100/1c.5                 bridge         Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Por
/0/100/1c.5/0    wlp3s0     network        Dual Band Wireless-AC 3168NGW [Stone 
/0/100/1f                   bridge         Intel(R) 100 Series Chipset Family LP
/0/100/1f.2                 memory         Memory controller
/0/100/1f.3                 multimedia     Sunrise Point-LP HD Audio
/0/100/1f.4                 bus            Sunrise Point-LP SMBus
/0/1             scsi0      storage        
/0/1/0.0.0       /dev/sda   disk           1TB WDC WD10SPZX-21Z
/0/1/0.0.0/1     /dev/sda1  volume         927GiB EXT4 volume
/0/1/0.0.0/2     /dev/sda2  volume         3970MiB Extended partition
/0/1/0.0.0/2/5   /dev/sda5  volume         3970MiB Linux swap volume

Used this command

$ systemd-analyze critical-chain
The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.
The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.

graphical.target @1min 6.870s
└─multi-user.target @1min 6.870s
  └─kerneloops.service @1min 6.842s +26ms
    └─network-online.target @1min 6.836s
      └─NetworkManager-wait-online.service @58.305s +8.529s
        └─NetworkManager.service @48.794s +9.507s
          └─dbus.service @48.775s
            └─basic.target @48.690s
              └─sockets.target @48.690s
                └─snapd.socket @48.620s +69ms
                  └─sysinit.target @48.618s
                    └─systemd-timesyncd.service @48.458s +159ms
                      └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service @47.215s +1.185s
                        └─systemd-journal-flush.service @5.764s +41.448s
                          └─systemd-remount-fs.service @4.325s +1.438s
                            └─systemd-journald.socket @4.229s
                              └─system.slice @4.229s
                                └─-.slice @4.170s

Saw this post Can we talk about the boot time on Ubuntu 18.04?


$ systemd-analyze time
Startup finished in 4.907s (kernel) + 7min 8.181s (userspace) = 7min 13.089s
graphical.target reached after 1min 6.870s in userspace


$ service --status-all | grep '+' | wc -l

3 Answers 3


In addition to cmak.fr

I looked into What is the use of systemd-journal-flush.service?

sudo nano /etc/systemd/journald.conf

In the journal section uncomment and alter:


Save & reboot.

keyboard-setup.service taking too long in startup (20+sec)

sudo gedit /lib/systemd/system/keyboard-setup.service



Ubuntu 15.04 network manager causing slow boot

sudo nano /lib/systemd/system/NetworkManager-wait-online.service

edit from 30 to 15

ExecStart=/usr/bin/nm-online -s -q --timeout=30

Long boot times on 18.04

sudo update-grub


$ systemd-analyze critical-chain
graphical.target @59.292s
└─multi-user.target @59.291s
  └─kerneloops.service @59.278s +12ms
    └─network-online.target @59.277s
      └─NetworkManager-wait-online.service @52.596s +6.681s
        └─NetworkManager.service @45.820s +6.773s
          └─dbus.service @45.792s
            └─basic.target @45.790s
              └─sockets.target @45.790s
                └─snapd.socket @45.745s +44ms
                  └─sysinit.target @45.743s
                    └─swap.target @45.543s


$ systemd-analyze time
Startup finished in 4.770s (kernel) + 59.301s (userspace) = 1min 4.072s
graphical.target reached after 59.292s in userspace

From 7min 13.089s to 1min 4.072s a huge improvement, if anyone has any more improvements that I am not aware of please do share.

  • Mind adding what the hardware specs are? make, model. cpu and harddisk should be enough. I have a HP omen with SSD as boot. Startup finished in 4.734s (firmware) + 454ms (loader) + 2.071s (kernel) + 2.998s (userspace) = 10.258s. Now adding your tweaks. Be right back :D
    – Rinzwind
    Commented Jul 27, 2019 at 9:05
  • That got bad D: Startup finished in 5.863s (firmware) + 471ms (loader) + 2.080s (kernel) + 17.499s (userspace) = 25.916s graphical.target reached after 2.732s in userspace. Hmmm :P
    – Rinzwind
    Commented Jul 27, 2019 at 9:11
  • ah! the software updater was the cause. Startup finished in 4.751s (firmware) + 453ms (loader) + 1.955s (kernel) + 2.793s (userspace) = 9.953s graphical.target reached after 2.788s in userspace. I LOVE YOU :=D Keyboard did not have a delay in it so only the other 2 used.
    – Rinzwind
    Commented Jul 27, 2019 at 9:14
  • 1
    Your dev-disk-by entries are truncated and we can't see the time they are taking up. Commented Jul 27, 2019 at 17:37
  • @Rinzwind Acer Aspire 5 Commented Jul 28, 2019 at 13:42

1. Journal size limit

The time consuming systemd-journal-flush.service can be tweaked by a journal size limit.
Edit the Journal config file

sudo nano /etc/systemd/journald.conf

# uncomment and configure the value
# personnaly i use 2M ;)

# Then restart the journald service
sudo systemctl restart systemd-journald

1.1 Journal clean up

sudo journalctl --rotate
sudo journalctl --vacuum-time=1s

For information, the journal size is given by this command:

journalctl --disk-usage

2. Startup applications

Another step to speed up userspace load delay is to disable some startup applications
See how to show all of them : https://help.ubuntu.com/community/ShowHiddenStartupApplications

sudo sed -i "s/NoDisplay=true/NoDisplay=false/g" /etc/xdg/autostart/*.desktop 

See how to open the Startup Applications applet : https://help.ubuntu.com/stable/ubuntu-help/startup-applications.html


If you dont mind, disabling Backup Monitor and Updates Notifier will save boot time.
enter image description here

  • SystemMaxUse= 1 Min 27 Sec, SystemMaxUse=5M 1 Min 24 Sec and SystemMaxUse=50M 1 Min 24 Sec Commented Jul 26, 2019 at 14:13
  • did #1. No startup apps I can nuke (only have lidclose). Startup finished in 4.889s (firmware) + 445ms (loader) + 2.018s (kernel) + 2.751s (userspace) = 10.105s. graphical.target reached after 2.746s in userspace. Better on g.t so me happy :) :) +1!
    – Rinzwind
    Commented Jul 27, 2019 at 9:19

Here's my contribution to this little Show & Tell:

$ systemd-analyze critical-chain
The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.
The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.

graphical.target @2.490s
└─multi-user.target @2.489s
  └─snapd.service @1min 34.450s +153ms
    └─basic.target @2.227s
      └─sockets.target @2.226s
        └─snapd.socket @2.205s +13ms
          └─sysinit.target @2.197s
            └─systemd-update-utmp.service @2.136s +54ms
              └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service @2.116s +9ms
                └─local-fs.target @2.108s
                  └─run-user-1000-gvfs.mount @1min 26.644s
                    └─run-user-1000.mount @1min 25.977s
                      └─local-fs-pre.target @192ms
                        └─systemd-remount-fs.service @172ms +10ms
                          └─systemd-fsck-root.service @110ms +39ms
                            └─systemd-fsckd.socket @109ms
                              └─-.slice @81ms

Compare this 2.49 seconds to SDC's answer of 59.29 seconds which has extra time consuming features I've removed from my boot-up:

  └─kerneloops.service @59.278s +12ms
    └─network-online.target @59.277s
      └─NetworkManager-wait-online.service @52.596s +6.681s
        └─NetworkManager.service @45.820s +6.773s
          └─dbus.service @45.792s
                └─snapd.socket @45.745s +44ms
                    └─swap.target @45.543s

Key features:

Systemd Journal Control enhancements

$ cat /etc/systemd/journald.conf
#  This file is part of systemd.
#  systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
#  under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
#  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
#  (at your option) any later version.
# Entries in this file show the compile time defaults.
# You can change settings by editing this file.
# Defaults can be restored by simply deleting this file.
# See journald.conf(5) for details.

# Aug 4 2018 - recommended: https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/journald.conf.html

The notable details are in bold.

Because journalctl files are not longer flushed at startup I have them setup to be vacuumed once a month:

Often I want to know what happened when the system crashed and I had to reboot. By default journalctl files don't show you the previous boots though. So I turned on multi-boot history:

That's all for today. I'll try to remember to update this answer going forward.

  • systemctl list-dependencies graphical.target list few services including multi-user.target, this in turn has 100 services as list-dependencies 😱 both taking same time 59.292s will investigate further on how i can reduce these as well in my free time Commented Jul 28, 2019 at 14:02

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