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This is for Ubuntu 16.04. When going through the installation process, if the computer is connected to the internet, there's an option for selecting to download packages during installation itself. I selected that option and installation proceeded fine.

After many such packages were downloaded during installation, my internet quota for the day expired, and since there was no more access to internet, Ubuntu had to stop downloading whatever package it was downloading, and it said the installation was successfully completed.

Right now Ubuntu is starting and working fine, but I want to know how I can ensure that the packages that it was meant to download and install, would now get downloaded and installed. Is it simply a matter of using the Ubuntu software update?

Alternatively, if I install Ubuntu when it's not connected to the internet and later want to install the packages that would have got installed if it was connected to the internet, how would I do it? Via the Ubuntu software update package? Or is there a need to have to know exactly which packages to download and install?

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    Run the Update Software application. It will download and install all the updates. – user68186 Jun 10 '19 at 3:36
  • The options you chose during installation will dictate what you may not have given. Two options offered are (1) download updates during installation which is fixed by updates, or (2) install third-party software for graphics and wifi-hardware, flash, mp3 and other media (files.ubuntu-manual.org/manuals/getting-started-with-ubuntu/…) The second group of packages contain some that are generic for machines (eg. ubuntu-restricted-extras) but also include drivers that are machine specific, so use ubuntu-drivers to add – guiverc Jun 10 '19 at 6:49
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Three Things to do after Ubuntu Installation, to Install Updates and Third Party Software

How I can ensure that the packages that it was meant to download and install, would now get downloaded and installed. Is it simply a matter of using the Ubuntu software update?

Yes! It is a matter of using the Software Updater application as detailed below.

Alternatively, if I install Ubuntu when it's not connected to the internet and later want to install the packages that would have got installed if it was connected to the internet, how would I do it?

There is no problem if you install Ubuntu without Internet connection. The updates can be downloaded and installed when you have Internet access once you have Ubuntu installed and working.

Via the Ubuntu software update package?

Yes!

Or is there a need to have to know exactly which packages to download and install?

There is no need to know which packages are to be downloaded and installed. The list changes almost every day as updates are made available. A list of packages made today will be obsolete in a few days.

The Details

I assume you checked the two boxes while installing Ubuntu:

  • Download updates while installing Ubuntu
  • Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware, Flash, MP3, and other media

Your Internet was disconnected during install. Or you did not check these boxes during Ubuntu installation. And now you want to download and install everything that was supposed to be installed.

You need to run two application from within Ubuntu. Open the Dash by clicking on the 9 dots at the bottom left corner and search for software update. You will see something like:

enter image description here

First, Click on (1) Software & Updates

Under the Ubuntu Software tab, make sure the first four check boxes are checked, as shown below:

enter image description here

Next check the Updates tab and make sure all the boxes are checked. Keep the default settings of daily checks for updates, automatic download and install of security updates and weekly display of other updates.

enter image description here

If your computer needs any third-party drivers for graphics cards or Wi-Fi they will show up under the Additional Drivers tab:

enter image description here

If everything is working to your satisfaction you may leave this alone. Do some research before changing anything on this tab. Selecting the wrong graphic display driver may give you a black screen after restart. Then you will need to text only interface to fix things.

When you are done with this application, click on Close button to close.

Now open Dash again and search for Software Update again.

Second, Click on (2) Software Updater

The application will look something like this:

enter image description here

Click on Install Now button. If prompted for your password, enter the password you created when you installed Ubuntu for your account.

This will download and install all the updates needed. Once it is done it may ask show you the option to Restart Now or Restart Later.

enter image description here

You may want to restart later as there is one more thing...

One More Thing

We need one more piece of add-on that gets installed with third-party software, they may have been left out because of your Internet disruption. It is easiest to install this using the command line.

Open a terminal using Ctrl+Alt+T and enter:

sudo apt install ubuntu-restricted-addons

You will be prompted for your password. Unlike the GUI, here the cursor won't move and you won't see any **** when you type your password. This is normal. Hit Enter after the password.

This add-on will allow you to play DVD movies (if your computer has a DVD player) and MP3 songs etc.

When the computer restarts everything will be up-to date.

Hope this helps

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The options you chose during installation will dictate what you may not have downloaded and had installed during installation.

enter image description here Two options offered are

(1) download updates during installation which is fixed by full updating your system, as @user68186 mentioned in comments or

(2) install third-party software for graphics and wifi-hardware, flash, mp3 and other media

(http://files.ubuntu-manual.org/manuals/getting-started-with-ubuntu/16.04/en_US/screen/Getting%20Started%20with%20Ubuntu%2016.04.pdf)

The second group of packages contain some that are generic for machines (eg. ubuntu-restricted-extras) but also include drivers that are machine specific, so use ubuntu-drivers (or Additional Drivers in the GUI) to add whatever is missing.

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  • this answer may be missing things. I haven't used flash in so many years I can't recall what package contains it, so aren't sure if it's covered in the ubuntu-restricted-extras or another package. any missing packages can be just added later though as long as internet is connected – guiverc Jun 10 '19 at 7:03
  • I also can't provide accurate information on the order of downloads, thus since your bandwidth-quota was reached part way through download, which packages were downloaded first, thus if it was option 1 or option 2 that gets downloaded first/last and would remain. QA-testing make up most of my installs, and they are either with internet, or without the whole install (if my own install, I usually opt no downloads/extras during install & do it it post-install on a bandwidth-free mirror). – guiverc Jun 10 '19 at 7:28
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Simply open your terminal and run:

$ sudo apt update

This is for updating your packages database. This command doesn't download and update anything.

Then run this:

$ sudo apt upgrade

This command shows all needed packages, which was not downloaded during installation or partially downloaded (before your daily quota ends) and downloads and installs them.

After these, your system is ready. Have fun!

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