You can issue
apt-cache show PKG (or just
apt show PKG) command to get package description, in this case we'll start by issuing the command to each package you want to know about.
This package provides the PHP module for the Apache 2 webserver (as found in the apache2-mpm-prefork package). Please note that this package ONLY works with Apache's prefork MPM, as it is not compiled thread-safe.
This package contains common utilities shared among all packaged PHP versions.
This package provides the documentation, examples and common module(s) for PHP.
This package provides the
/usr/bin/php7.2 command interpreter, useful for testing PHP scripts from a shell or performing general shell scripting tasks.
This package provides the JSON module(s) for PHP.
This package provides the Zend OpCache module(s) for PHP.
This package provides the readline module(s) for PHP.
If you plan to use apache as your webserver, then leave out as it be because by default
apt will install apache integration with php— otherwise just installing
php7.2-cli will get rid of apache dependencies for good.