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I upgraded 18.04 from 16.04, so I had no clean install. Since then I have got this error (since 2 months):

Whenever I boot Ubuntu 18.04 after selecting in the Grub between Ubuntu and Windows I get this message:

No symbol table found.
Press any key to continue...

And it remains there for a minute or so before showing me the login screen.

My fdisk -l output:

Disk /dev/sda: 117,4 GiB, 126035288064 bytes, 246162672 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xe292a906

Device     Boot  Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *      2048    206847    204800   100M  7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2       206848 246159359 245952512 117,3G  7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT


Disk /dev/sdb: 931,5 GiB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x831db74e

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sdb1        2048 1953521663 1953519616 931,5G  7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT


Disk /dev/sdc: 111,8 GiB, 120034123776 bytes, 234441648 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x000c542e

Device     Boot   Start       End   Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdc1          2048   7999487   7997440  3,8G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sdc2  *    7999488 234440703 226441216  108G 83 Linux

My Boot Info Script output:

                  Boot Info Script 0.77      [10 June 2018]


============================= Boot Info Summary: ===============================

 => Grub2 (v2.00) is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda and looks at sector 1 of 
    the same hard drive for core.img. core.img is at this location and looks 
    for /boot/grub. It also embeds following components:

    modules
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    fshelp ext2 part_msdos biosdisk search_fs_uuid
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    config script
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    search.fs_uuid da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c root hd2,msdos2 
    set prefix=($root)'/boot/grub'

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 => No boot loader is installed in the MBR of /dev/sdb.
 => Grub2 (v2.00) is installed in the MBR of /dev/sdc and looks at sector 1 of 
    the same hard drive for core.img. core.img is at this location and looks 
    for (,msdos2)/boot/grub. It also embeds following components:

    modules
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    fshelp ext2 part_msdos biosdisk
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

sda1: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       ntfs
    Boot sector type:  Windows 8/2012: NTFS
    Boot sector info:  No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
    Operating System:  
    Boot files:        /bootmgr /Boot/BCD

sda2: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       ntfs
    Boot sector type:  Windows 7/2008: NTFS
    Boot sector info:  No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
    Operating System:  
    Boot files:        /Windows/System32/winload.exe

sdb1: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       ntfs
    Boot sector type:  Windows 7/2008: NTFS
    Boot sector info:  No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
    Operating System:  
    Boot files:        

sdc1: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       swap
    Boot sector type:  -
    Boot sector info: 

sdc2: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       ext4
    Boot sector type:  -
    Boot sector info: 
    Operating System:  Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS
    Boot files:        /boot/grub/grub.cfg /etc/fstab 
                       /boot/grub/i386-pc/core.img

============================ Drive/Partition Info: =============================

Drive: sda _____________________________________________________________________
Disk /dev/sda: 117,4 GiB, 126035288064 bytes, 246162672 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos

Partition  Boot  Start Sector    End Sector  # of Sectors  Id System

/dev/sda1    *          2,048       206,847       204,800   7 NTFS / exFAT / HPFS
/dev/sda2             206,848   246,159,359   245,952,512   7 NTFS / exFAT / HPFS


Drive: sdb _____________________________________________________________________
Disk /dev/sdb: 931,5 GiB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disklabel type: dos

Partition  Boot  Start Sector    End Sector  # of Sectors  Id System

/dev/sdb1               2,048 1,953,521,663 1,953,519,616   7 NTFS / exFAT / HPFS


GUID Partition Table detected, but does not seem to be used.

Partition  Attrs   Start Sector    End Sector  # of Sectors System

Attributes: R=Required, N=No Block IO, B=Legacy BIOS Bootable, +=More bits set

Drive: sdc _____________________________________________________________________
Disk /dev/sdc: 111,8 GiB, 120034123776 bytes, 234441648 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos

Partition  Boot  Start Sector    End Sector  # of Sectors  Id System

/dev/sdc1               2,048     7,999,487     7,997,440  82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sdc2    *      7,999,488   234,440,703   226,441,216  83 Linux


"blkid" output: ________________________________________________________________

Device           UUID                                   TYPE       LABEL

/dev/sda1        E69E77A29E7769C7                       ntfs       
/dev/sda2        3A9C7CF09C7CA851                       ntfs       
/dev/sdb1        281E7EAF1E7E7622                       ntfs       
/dev/sdc1        73457ed5-f63e-49fd-a88d-2deec222ae25   swap       
/dev/sdc2        da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c   ext4       

========================= "ls -l /dev/disk/by-id" output: ======================

total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Dez 17 12:43 ata-SanDisk_SDSSDA120G_160265401375 -> ../../sdc
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 12:43 ata-SanDisk_SDSSDA120G_160265401375-part1 -> ../../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 12:43 ata-SanDisk_SDSSDA120G_160265401375-part2 -> ../../sdc2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Dez 17 10:42 ata-SanDisk_SDSSDP128G_151524402987 -> ../../sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 10:42 ata-SanDisk_SDSSDP128G_151524402987-part1 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 10:42 ata-SanDisk_SDSSDP128G_151524402987-part2 -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Dez 17 10:42 ata-WDC_WD10EZEX-00BN5A0_WD-WCC3F2JFZ2HP -> ../../sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 10:42 ata-WDC_WD10EZEX-00BN5A0_WD-WCC3F2JFZ2HP-part1 -> ../../sdb1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Dez 17 10:42 wwn-0x50014ee2611dedb8 -> ../../sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 10:42 wwn-0x50014ee2611dedb8-part1 -> ../../sdb1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Dez 17 12:43 wwn-0x5001b444a44845f4 -> ../../sdc
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 12:43 wwn-0x5001b444a44845f4-part1 -> ../../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 12:43 wwn-0x5001b444a44845f4-part2 -> ../../sdc2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Dez 17 10:42 wwn-0x5001b44e5323e32b -> ../../sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 10:42 wwn-0x5001b44e5323e32b-part1 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Dez 17 10:42 wwn-0x5001b44e5323e32b-part2 -> ../../sda2

================================ Mount points: =================================

Device           Mount_Point              Type       Options

/dev/sdb1        /home/philipp/media      fuseblk    (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=0,group_id=0,allow_other,blksize=4096,x-gvfs-show)
/dev/sdc2        /                        ext4       (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro,data=ordered)


=========================== sdc2/boot/grub/grub.cfg: ===========================

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by grub-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
  set have_grubenv=true
  load_env
fi
if [ "${next_entry}" ] ; then
   set default="${next_entry}"
   set next_entry=
   save_env next_entry
   set boot_once=true
else
   set default="0"
fi

if [ x"${feature_menuentry_id}" = xy ]; then
  menuentry_id_option="--id"
else
  menuentry_id_option=""
fi

export menuentry_id_option

if [ "${prev_saved_entry}" ]; then
  set saved_entry="${prev_saved_entry}"
  save_env saved_entry
  set prev_saved_entry=
  save_env prev_saved_entry
  set boot_once=true
fi

function savedefault {
  if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then
    saved_entry="${chosen}"
    save_env saved_entry
  fi
}
function recordfail {
  set recordfail=1
  if [ -n "${have_grubenv}" ]; then if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then save_env recordfail; fi; fi
}
function load_video {
  if [ x$feature_all_video_module = xy ]; then
    insmod all_video
  else
    insmod efi_gop
    insmod efi_uga
    insmod ieee1275_fb
    insmod vbe
    insmod vga
    insmod video_bochs
    insmod video_cirrus
  fi
}

if [ x$feature_default_font_path = xy ] ; then
   font=unicode
else
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='hd2,msdos2'
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
else
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
fi
    font="/usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2"
fi

if loadfont $font ; then
  set gfxmode=auto
  load_video
  insmod gfxterm
  set locale_dir=$prefix/locale
  set lang=en_US
  insmod gettext
fi
terminal_output gfxterm
if [ "${recordfail}" = 1 ] ; then
  set timeout=30
else
  if [ x$feature_timeout_style = xy ] ; then
    set timeout_style=menu
    set timeout=10
  # Fallback normal timeout code in case the timeout_style feature is
  # unavailable.
  else
    set timeout=10
  fi
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=black/light-gray
if background_color 44,0,30,0; then
  clear
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux_proxy ###

function gfxmode {
    set gfxpayload="${1}"
    if [ "${1}" = "keep" ]; then
        set vt_handoff=vt.handoff=7
    else
        set vt_handoff=
    fi
}
if [ "${recordfail}" != 1 ]; then
  if [ -e ${prefix}/gfxblacklist.txt ]; then
    if hwmatch ${prefix}/gfxblacklist.txt 3; then
      if [ ${match} = 0 ]; then
        set linux_gfx_mode=keep
      else
        set linux_gfx_mode=text
      fi
    else
      set linux_gfx_mode=text
    fi
  else
    set linux_gfx_mode=keep
  fi
else
  set linux_gfx_mode=text
fi
export linux_gfx_mode



### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober_proxy ###
menuentry "Windows 7 (loader) (on /dev/sda1)" --class windows --class os $menuentry_id_option 'osprober-chain-E69E77A29E7769C7' {
    insmod part_msdos
    insmod ntfs
    set root='hd0,msdos1'
    if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,msdos1 --hint-efi=hd0,msdos1 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,msdos1  E69E77A29E7769C7
    else
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root E69E77A29E7769C7
    fi
    parttool ${root} hidden-
    chainloader +1
}
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/31_linux_proxy ###
submenu "Advanced options for Ubuntu"{
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 3.19.0-61-generic" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-3.19.0-61-generic-advanced-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        gfxmode $linux_gfx_mode
        insmod gzio
        if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
        insmod part_msdos
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd2,msdos2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 3.19.0-61-generic ...'
        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-3.19.0-61-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro  quiet splash $vt_handoff
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd  /boot/initrd.img-3.19.0-61-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 3.19.0-61-generic (recovery mode)" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-3.19.0-61-generic-recovery-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        insmod gzio
        if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
        insmod part_msdos
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd2,msdos2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 3.19.0-61-generic ...'
        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-3.19.0-61-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro recovery nomodeset 
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd  /boot/initrd.img-3.19.0-61-generic
}
}
### END /etc/grub.d/31_linux_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/32_linux_xen ###

### END /etc/grub.d/32_linux_xen ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/33_memtest86+_proxy ###



### END /etc/grub.d/33_memtest86+_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/34_os-prober_proxy ###


set timeout_style=menu
if [ "${timeout}" = 0 ]; then
  set timeout=10
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/34_os-prober_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/35_memtest86+_proxy ###
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+)" {
    insmod part_msdos
    insmod ext2
    set root='hd2,msdos2'
    if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
    else
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
    fi
    knetbsd /boot/memtest86+.elf
}
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+, serial console 115200)" {
    insmod part_msdos
    insmod ext2
    set root='hd2,msdos2'
    if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
    else
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
    fi
    linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin console=ttyS0,115200n8
}
### END /etc/grub.d/35_memtest86+_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/36_linux_proxy ###
menuentry "Ubuntu" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-simple-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
    recordfail
    load_video
    gfxmode $linux_gfx_mode
    insmod gzio
    if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
    insmod part_msdos
    insmod ext2
    set root='hd2,msdos2'
    if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
    else
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
    fi
    linux   /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-42-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro  quiet splash $vt_handoff
    initrd  /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-42-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 4.15.0-42-generic" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-4.15.0-42-generic-advanced-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        gfxmode $linux_gfx_mode
        insmod gzio
        if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
        insmod part_msdos
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd2,msdos2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 4.15.0-42-generic ...'
        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-42-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro  quiet splash $vt_handoff
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd  /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-42-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 4.15.0-42-generic (recovery mode)" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-4.15.0-42-generic-recovery-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        insmod gzio
        if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
        insmod part_msdos
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd2,msdos2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 4.15.0-42-generic ...'
        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-42-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro recovery nomodeset 
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd  /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-42-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 4.15.0-39-generic" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-4.15.0-39-generic-advanced-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        gfxmode $linux_gfx_mode
        insmod gzio
        if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
        insmod part_msdos
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd2,msdos2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 4.15.0-39-generic ...'
        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-39-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro  quiet splash $vt_handoff
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd  /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-39-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 4.15.0-39-generic (recovery mode)" --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-4.15.0-39-generic-recovery-da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        insmod gzio
        if [ x$grub_platform = xxen ]; then insmod xzio; insmod lzopio; fi
        insmod part_msdos
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd2,msdos2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd2,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd2,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci2,msdos2  da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 4.15.0-39-generic ...'
        linux   /boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-39-generic root=UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c ro recovery nomodeset 
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd  /boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-39-generic
}
### END /etc/grub.d/36_linux_proxy ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/37_uefi-firmware ###
### END /etc/grub.d/37_uefi-firmware ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries.  Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment.  Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
if [ -f  ${config_directory}/custom.cfg ]; then
  source ${config_directory}/custom.cfg
elif [ -z "${config_directory}" -a -f  $prefix/custom.cfg ]; then
  source $prefix/custom.cfg;
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

=============================== sdc2/etc/fstab: ================================

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
# / was on /dev/sdc2 during installation
UUID=da468979-67c2-44b5-8886-d868ed3be27c /               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# swap was on /dev/sdc1 during installation
UUID=73457ed5-f63e-49fd-a88d-2deec222ae25 none            swap    sw              0       0
/dev/disk/by-uuid/281E7EAF1E7E7622 /home/philipp/media auto nosuid,nodev,nofail,x-gvfs-show,x-gvfs-name=WindowsFestplatte 0 0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

=================== sdc2: Location of files loaded by Grub: ====================

           GiB - GB             File                                 Fragment(s)

  91,136955261 = 97,857560576   boot/grub/grub.cfg                             2
  84,258537292 = 90,471915520   boot/grub/i386-pc/core.img                     1
   9,043247223 = 9,710112768    boot/vmlinuz-3.19.0-61-generic                 1
  15,263565063 = 16,389128192   boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-39-generic                 2
  94,337783813 = 101,294424064  boot/vmlinuz-4.15.0-42-generic                 2
  94,337783813 = 101,294424064  vmlinuz                                        2
  15,263565063 = 16,389128192   vmlinuz.old                                    2
  78,837886810 = 84,651536384   boot/initrd.img-3.19.0-61-generic              5
  45,283199310 = 48,622465024   boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-39-generic             10
  99,574939728 = 106,917777408  boot/initrd.img-4.15.0-42-generic             117
  99,574939728 = 106,917777408  initrd.img                                    117
  45,283199310 = 48,622465024   initrd.img.old                                10

So I have a SSD where my Windows 7 is (sda). I have a SSD where my Ubuntu is (sdc). And I have a HDD (sdb).

Solutions I tried: No symbol table. Press any key to continue

I did:

sudo grub-install /dev/sdc
sudo update-grub
sudo reboot

But nothing changed. I chose sdc because there is my Ubuntu installed right?

0

From your boot-info:

Grub2 (v2.00) is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda and looks at sector 1 of 
the same hard drive for core.img. core.img is at this location and looks 
for /boot/grub. It also embeds following components:

so the correct commands would have been:

sudo grub-install /dev/sda
sudo update-grub
sudo reboot

However, they would not have helped as you're affected by this bug so subscribe to the list and see when it gets fixed and then just do a:

sudo apt update
sudo apt dist-upgrade

and it should go away all by itself.

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