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When I run cat /etc/group on Ubuntu 18.04, I get this output:

root:x:0:
daemon:x:1:
bin:x:2:
sys:x:3:
adm:x:4:syslog,hani
tty:x:5:
disk:x:6:
lp:x:7:
mail:x:8:
news:x:9:
uucp:x:10:
man:x:12:
proxy:x:13:
kmem:x:15:
dialout:x:20:
fax:x:21:
voice:x:22:
cdrom:x:24:hani
floppy:x:25:
tape:x:26:
sudo:x:27:hani
audio:x:29:pulse
dip:x:30:hani
www-data:x:33:
backup:x:34:
operator:x:37:
list:x:38:
irc:x:39:
src:x:40:
gnats:x:41:
shadow:x:42:
utmp:x:43:
video:x:44:
sasl:x:45:
plugdev:x:46:hani
staff:x:50:
games:x:60:
users:x:100:
nogroup:x:65534:
systemd-journal:x:101:
systemd-network:x:102:
systemd-resolve:x:103:
input:x:104:
crontab:x:105:
syslog:x:106:
messagebus:x:107:
netdev:x:108:
mlocate:x:109:
ssl-cert:x:110:
uuidd:x:111:
avahi-autoipd:x:112:
bluetooth:x:113:
rtkit:x:114:
ssh:x:115:
lpadmin:x:116:hani
whoopsie:x:117:
scanner:x:118:saned
saned:x:119:
pulse:x:120:
pulse-access:x:121:
avahi:x:122:
colord:x:123:
geoclue:x:124:
gdm:x:125:
hani:x:1000:
sambashare:x:126:hani
nvidia-persistenced:x:127:
rdma:x:128:
docker:x:999:

I know that 'root', 'daemon', etc. .. are groups or user names, but what does the rest of that mean (:x:0:, :x:125:, :x:126:, ...)?

marked as duplicate by muru, Community Nov 16 at 22:06

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

  • 4
    Have you read the fine manual page (man group)? – steeldriver Nov 16 at 13:51
  • I checked it now, thank you. – singrium Nov 16 at 14:03
  • @steeldriver since the answer is obvious and exists in man group, I don't know whether to let this question or to remove it. What do you think about it? – singrium Nov 16 at 14:04
up vote 10 down vote accepted

Quoting the respective manual page man group:

NAME
       group - user group file

DESCRIPTION
       The  /etc/group file is a text file that defines the groups on the sys‐
       tem.  There is one entry per line, with the following format:

              group_name:password:GID:user_list

       The fields are as follows:

       group_name  the name of the group.

       password    the (encrypted) group password.  If this field is empty, no
                   password is needed.

       GID         the numeric group ID.

       user_list   a  list  of  the  usernames that are members of this group,
                   separated by commas.

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