I'm trying to convert this line of C program to bash script: C:

bin = bin+d*10^n-1;

bin,d,n are declared as int. bash:

bin=`exp $bin+$d\*10^n-1`

but it's incorrect

1 Answer 1


Bash has built-in functionality for arithmetic expressions. The feature is called "Arithmetic Expansion". The bash man page contains more information.

The syntax is $((expression)). In your case the script might contain the following.


set -x

echo $((${bin} + ${d}*10^${n}-1))

The operator precedence resembles C's but is not exactly the same, as Bash and C support different operators. Here is a useful reference: https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/html_node/Shell-Arithmetic.html#Shell-Arithmetic

The above is appropriate only because the operands are C ints. Arithmetic Expansion does not support floating-point arithmetic.

  • 1
    ^ in C isn't exponentiation.
    – muru
    Nov 11, 2018 at 5:34
  • I have corrected the response.
    – user891856
    Nov 11, 2018 at 6:00
  • How to do it without echo command?
    – Tu Nguyen
    Nov 11, 2018 at 14:30
  • @TuNguyen echo was used to print the result immediately. You can store it in variable like bin=$((${bin} + ${d}*10^${n}-1)) and then print it using echo $bin or use anywhere else.
    – Kulfy
    Nov 11, 2018 at 19:15

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