In Ubuntu 16 if you held down the super key, the applications in the dock display with a number. If you continue holding the super key and then hit one of those numbers, the application launches.
Is there a shortcut like this for Ubuntu 18?
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Simply press and hold Super+Q. You should see numbers appearing next to the application icons. Then release Q and press the number associated to your target application to launch it.
You can alternatively press Super+number directly to launch the application without pressing Super+Q first.
If pressing Super+Q fails to show the numbers, run the following command first.
gsettings set org.gnome.shell.extensions.dash-to-dock hot-keys false
Dash to Dock GNOME extension, and modify the settings to do this...
A dock for the Gnome Shell. This extension moves the dash out of the overview transforming it in a dock for an easier launching of applications and a faster switching between windows and desktops. Side and bottom placement options are available.
Extension Homepage https://micheleg.github.io/dash-to-dock/
sudo apt install gnome-tweaks
Configure keyboard shortcuts:
Open the configuration, open gnome-tweaks, click on the left tab Extension and search the Dash to Dock. Click on Configure Icon and go to the tab and enable as shown below.