In terminal windows, in Emacs, and in mutt when text is updated (so usually at the bottom of a terminal window, but anywhere in mutt or emacs depending on what is changing), often (repeatably in certain common situations) the text is not redrawn; so for example, if i cut a line of text in Emacs, the old text (the line that was cut) remains visible even though the line was actually cut; if i use the up arrow at the bottom of a terminal window to recall the previous command, the window scrolls as normal except for the last line at the bottom of the window, which continues to display the old prompt, even though actually the previous command was recalled. In mutt, when new emails come in and are displayed at the top of the screen, instead the previous contents of those lines of text remains.
An update can be forced by highlighting the offending/corrupted line of text with the mouse. Or, by moving the cursor over the corrupted line of text, each character is updated as the cursor moves over it.
To reliably cause the corruption in a terminal window, i go to a full terminal window (one where the prompt is on the last line), i descend to a directory so deep that the commandline spills over onto a second line, i use the pager 'less' to view a file, then press 'q' which returns me to the terminal, then i press up arrow to recall the previous command. This reliably corrupts the last line of text on the screen.
I am on Ubuntu 18.04, intel graphics, default login (not wayland).