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I just upgraded an Ubuntu server from 16.04 to 18.04. All went seemingly smooth, but after a restart I'm not able to log in.

The server boots, I can see all the usual logging output on the screen, some services start properly, but it never arrives at the console login prompt (no X on this machine).

I can access websites served by the machine, so at least nginx and postgresql services have started, but – unfortunately – not sshd.

I know it's all a bit fluffy, but what do I do to regain access to my server, either via SSH or a local console at the physical machine (or both, preferably)?

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    If it were me, assuming it's a system you can take offline, I'd boot in maintenance/single user mode by adding a '1' to the linux kernel line on boot (at grub menu screen, hit <e> for edit, add 1, then <f10>). This should let you login via terminal (local only), and look around in logs to get some clues. I don't know what could have gone wrong, so can't tell you where to look sorry... – guiverc Sep 15 '18 at 7:18
  • @guiverc, thanks! This helped me fix sshd, and then I'll look at the remaining issues via an SSH connection. If you upgrade your comment to an answer, I'll mark it as the correct one :) – decibyte Sep 15 '18 at 8:20
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If it were me, assuming it's a system you can take offline, I'd boot into maintenance/single user mode by adding a '1' to the linux kernel line on boot

To do this, at grub menu screen, hit 'e' for edit, add 1 to the 'linux' line with space either side; usually near end of line, then press 'f10' to boot.

This should let you login via terminal (local only), and look around in logs to get some clues.

I don't know what could have gone wrong, so can't tell you where to look sorry...

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