I have exactly the same issue with Chromium and Quadro M4000M (ThinkPad P70) on Arch Linux (xmonad, nouveau). So my conclusion is, that there is a bug in chromium that was introduced in the last year. Probably Quadro / M4000 related. It worked before with Nouveau and Nvidia driver.
I am not aware of any solution to fix it, but there are some workarounds:
You can drag and drop the tabs to another browser window and recover them manually.
You can use a browser plugin like OneTab to save and close all affected tabs. Then open a new window and restore all saved tabs (use mouse hover to find the OneTab button).
Disabling hardware acceleration in chrome settings could work, but you will lose some rendering performance.
Check results of
chrome://gpu - It reports some issues for my system, not sure if it is related.
Could be related to
GL ERROR :GL_OUT_OF_MEMORY : GLES2DecoderImpl::DoBindTexImage2DCHROMIUM: <- error from previous GL command
Update 1: I have created a bug report here: