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I have Ubuntu 18.04 desktop installed. I want to be able to run a remote desktop, not screen sharing but a separate desktop.

All the instructions I've seen require installing 30-100 packages (dependencies).

For example these instructions try to install all these packages

$ sudo sudo apt install xfce4 xfce4-goodies
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
  desktop-base exo-utils gconf-service gconf-service-backend gconf2 gconf2-common greybird-gtk-theme gtk2-engines-xfce
  hddtemp libatkmm-1.6-1v5 libbonobo2-0 libbonobo2-common libbonoboui2-0 libbonoboui2-common libburn4 libcairomm-1.0-1v5
  libexo-1-0 libexo-2-0 libexo-common libexo-helpers libgarcon-1-0 libgarcon-common libgconf-2-4 libglade2-0
  libglibmm-2.4-1v5 libgnome-2-0 libgnome-keyring-common libgnome-keyring0 libgnome2-common libgnomecanvas2-0
  libgnomecanvas2-common libgnomeui-0 libgnomeui-common libgnomevfs2-0 libgnomevfs2-common libgtkmm-3.0-1v5 libisofs6
  libjpeg-turbo-progs libjte1 libkeybinder-3.0-0 liborbit-2-0 libpangomm-1.4-1v5 libqrencode3 libsigc++-2.0-0v5 libtagc0
  libthunarx-2-0 libtumbler-1-0 libunique-1.0-0 libwnck-common libwnck22 libxfce4panel-2.0-4 libxfce4ui-1-0 libxfce4ui-2-0
  libxfce4ui-common libxfce4ui-utils libxfce4util-bin libxfce4util-common libxfce4util7 libxfconf-0-2 lm-sensors mousepad
  orage pavucontrol ristretto tango-icon-theme thunar thunar-archive-plugin thunar-data thunar-media-tags-plugin
  thunar-volman tumbler tumbler-common xfburn xfce4-appfinder xfce4-battery-plugin xfce4-clipman xfce4-clipman-plugin
  xfce4-cpufreq-plugin xfce4-cpugraph-plugin xfce4-datetime-plugin xfce4-dict xfce4-diskperf-plugin xfce4-fsguard-plugin
  xfce4-genmon-plugin xfce4-mailwatch-plugin xfce4-mount-plugin xfce4-netload-plugin xfce4-notes xfce4-notes-plugin
  xfce4-notifyd xfce4-panel xfce4-places-plugin xfce4-power-manager xfce4-power-manager-data xfce4-power-manager-plugins
  xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin xfce4-screenshooter xfce4-sensors-plugin xfce4-session xfce4-settings xfce4-smartbookmark-plugin
  xfce4-systemload-plugin xfce4-taskmanager xfce4-terminal xfce4-timer-plugin xfce4-verve-plugin xfce4-wavelan-plugin
  xfce4-weather-plugin xfce4-whiskermenu-plugin xfce4-xkb-plugin xfconf xfdesktop4 xfdesktop4-data xfwm4 xscreensaver
  xscreensaver-data xubuntu-icon-theme
Suggested packages:
  gconf-defaults-service libbonobo2-bin gnome-icon-theme libgnomevfs2-bin libgnomevfs2-extra gamin | fam gnome-mime-data
  devhelp fancontrol read-edid i2c-tools sox kdelibs-data tumbler-plugins-extra gtk3-engines-xfce gigolo parole
  xfce4-cellmodem-plugin xfce4-hdaps xfce4-indicator-plugin xfce4-linelight-plugin xfce4-messenger-plugin xfce4-mpc-plugin
  xfce4-radio-plugin xfswitch-plugin xsensors fortunes-mod pm-utils mugshot menu xfwm4-themes xfishtank xdaliclock
  xscreensaver-data-extra xscreensaver-gl xscreensaver-gl-extra fortune qcam | streamer
Recommended packages:
  perl5
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  desktop-base exo-utils gconf-service gconf-service-backend gconf2 gconf2-common greybird-gtk-theme gtk2-engines-xfce
  hddtemp libatkmm-1.6-1v5 libbonobo2-0 libbonobo2-common libbonoboui2-0 libbonoboui2-common libburn4 libcairomm-1.0-1v5
  libexo-1-0 libexo-2-0 libexo-common libexo-helpers libgarcon-1-0 libgarcon-common libgconf-2-4 libglade2-0
  libglibmm-2.4-1v5 libgnome-2-0 libgnome-keyring-common libgnome-keyring0 libgnome2-common libgnomecanvas2-0
  libgnomecanvas2-common libgnomeui-0 libgnomeui-common libgnomevfs2-0 libgnomevfs2-common libgtkmm-3.0-1v5 libisofs6
  libjpeg-turbo-progs libjte1 libkeybinder-3.0-0 liborbit-2-0 libpangomm-1.4-1v5 libqrencode3 libsigc++-2.0-0v5 libtagc0
  libthunarx-2-0 libtumbler-1-0 libunique-1.0-0 libwnck-common libwnck22 libxfce4panel-2.0-4 libxfce4ui-1-0 libxfce4ui-2-0
  libxfce4ui-common libxfce4ui-utils libxfce4util-bin libxfce4util-common libxfce4util7 libxfconf-0-2 lm-sensors mousepad
  orage pavucontrol ristretto tango-icon-theme thunar thunar-archive-plugin thunar-data thunar-media-tags-plugin
  thunar-volman tumbler tumbler-common xfburn xfce4 xfce4-appfinder xfce4-battery-plugin xfce4-clipman xfce4-clipman-plugin
  xfce4-cpufreq-plugin xfce4-cpugraph-plugin xfce4-datetime-plugin xfce4-dict xfce4-diskperf-plugin xfce4-fsguard-plugin
  xfce4-genmon-plugin xfce4-goodies xfce4-mailwatch-plugin xfce4-mount-plugin xfce4-netload-plugin xfce4-notes
  xfce4-notes-plugin xfce4-notifyd xfce4-panel xfce4-places-plugin xfce4-power-manager xfce4-power-manager-data
  xfce4-power-manager-plugins xfce4-pulseaudio-plugin xfce4-screenshooter xfce4-sensors-plugin xfce4-session xfce4-settings
  xfce4-smartbookmark-plugin xfce4-systemload-plugin xfce4-taskmanager xfce4-terminal xfce4-timer-plugin xfce4-verve-plugin
  xfce4-wavelan-plugin xfce4-weather-plugin xfce4-whiskermenu-plugin xfce4-xkb-plugin xfconf xfdesktop4 xfdesktop4-data xfwm4
  xscreensaver xscreensaver-data xubuntu-icon-theme
0 upgraded, 119 newly installed, 0 to remove and 4 not upgraded.
Need to get 33.7 MB of archives.
After this operation, 155 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 

Given that software is already installed to run a local desktop, can I setup vnc to run that same software for a remote desktop or do I have to install other software?

Note that only installing tinyvncserver a screen comes up and Nautilus the gnome filemanager appears but the entire desktop (as in side bar, top bar, ability to launch apps, etc) does not appear.

If I can do it without installing other software what do I need to put in the ~/.vnc/xstartup file?

note that vino is also running. Can I use vino for a separate desktop or is vino only for screen sharing?

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