Since I'm just a beginner in using Ubuntu 18.04 and MySQL 5.7 on it, which is the best and fastest way to do backup of database using terminal? Or do I need to search for it in some files and whatever...


The default method would be to use mysqldump.

mysqldump -u {user} -p {database} > {backup.sql}

and you will get a text based file that holds any SQL related to that that database: table definition, content. The link will list far more options (you can for instance only dump the structure of the database, include procedures, functions and many more)

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