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I have this bash script:

#!/bin/sh -eux

. ./.env

What does the second line do?

It seems to be impossible to google such syntax :)

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Regarding the dot:

. (source or dot operator)

Read and execute commands from the filename argument in the current shell context.

Syntax . filename [arguments]

  source filename [arguments]

source is a synonym for dot/period '.' in bash, but not in POSIX sh, so for maximum compatibility use the period.

And regarding

./.env

That is a hidden file (starts with a dot) called .env in the current directory (./)

Basically this command sources the file .env and from the filename you can assume it reloads environment variables. It is equivalent to

source ./.env

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